טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
Ph.D Thesis
Ph.D StudentBunis Hallel
SubjectCaging-Based Grasping via Minimalistic Robot Hands
DepartmentDepartment of Mechanical Engineering
Supervisor Professor Elon Rimon
Full Thesis textFull thesis text - English Version


Abstract

Caging offers a robust method for grasping objects with multi-finger robot hands. To grasp an object, the robot hand is first configured in a cage formation around the object. The cage formation allows the object some freedom to move within the hand, but prevents it from escaping the hand. In the case of squeezing caging the hand is then closed, while in the case of stretching caging the hand is opened, until the object is completely immobilized by the fingers, without the need for a precise placement of the fingers relative to the object.

The thesis presents several novel caging-to-grasping algorithms for polygonal objects and robot hands that open and close according to a single parameter. The robot hands are comprised of three point or disc fingers, or two fingers that lock the objects against a linear wall. The configuration space of such hands is four-dimensional. Given a user specified target immobilizing grasp of an object, the algorithms compute the set of cage formations associated with it. For squeezing caging, starting from any cage formation in the set and closing the hand guarantees that the object will remain caged throughout the caging-to-grasping process, until an immobilizing grasp is reached. For stretching caging, opening the hand immobilizes the object.

Each algorithm in this thesis is based on the construction of a caging graph embedded in the hand's two-dimensional contact space. Contact space parameterizes all the hand configurations at which at least two fingers contact the object. The nodes of the caging graph represent frictionless equilibrium grasps of the object, as well as grasps where a finger contacts a vertex of the polygonal object. The caging graph edges represent feasible hand motions between hand configurations corresponding to the caging graph nodes. Starting from the target immobilizing grasp, the set of cage formations is determined by the critical cage formation that allows the object to escape the hand for the first time. The critical cage formation forms an equilibrium grasp of the object, and is hence represented by a graph node. The difficult task of computing the caging set in the hand's four-dimensional configuration space is thus reduced to a simple task of constructing and searching the caging graph for the critical cage formation.

The first caging-to-grasping algorithm presented in the thesis considers hands that squeeze the object in order to immobilize it, while forming equilateral triangle finger formations. Such hands are simple mechanically, however they cannot immobilize every generic polygon. The second algorithm presented in the thesis extends the first algorithm to hands that form any family of similar triangle finger formations. This generalization increases the possible grasps that can be used to immobilize an object. The third algorithm considers locking polygonal objects against a linear wall using robot hands having two point or disc-fingers. The wall is treated as a third finger of an equivalent three-finger hand. The fourth algorithm considers stretching grasps by three-finger robot hands that form a family of similar triangle formations, thus expanding the grasp selection.