Ph.D Thesis

Ph.D StudentBen-Hakoun Elyakim
SubjectMarine Environmental Emission Reduction Policy, Economic
and Emission Impact
DepartmentDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Supervisors PROF. Yoram Shiftan
PROF. Eddy Van De Voorde


International shipping is responsible for transporting 96% of the global demand for goods in terms of weight, and 80% in terms of value. In Israel, 99% of goods traded are transported by sea. As a result of increasing environmental awareness, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), has declared the necessity of implementing an air pollution reduction policy. This study focuses on the economic and emission inventory impact of the IMO marine emissions reduction policy. This dissertation comprises three-parts; each part focuses on a different area of study, for a wider understanding and assessment of the IMO policy’s impact. The first study investigates Israel’s main ports’ emission contribution to the emission inventory in the area by developing a generic full bottom-up Port/Shoreline Emission Inventory model framework that looks at the single vessel daily voyage through its port call stages, combined with vessel-specific technical data (such as vessel category type, class, and main/auxiliary engine characteristics, type, speed rate, and Tier grade). The data cover the period from 2010 until 2018 and focus on Ocean-Going Vessels (OGV) only. The developed model was used to estimate port emission inventory for Haifa & Ashdod (including Ashkelon) and vessel movements’ emission across Israel’s shoreline. The model findings are significant and can play an important role for assessment of the environment and the economic effect (reduction potential, emission tariff, etc.). The second study investigates the correlation between the claim of success of Haifa Low Emission Zone (LEZ) program and the work of the primary Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger (TSHD) used for the construction of the new “Hamifraz Port” in Haifa Bay. This study evaluates the TSHD emission inventories by developing a full bottom-up model framework that looks at TSHD vessel daily operation performance, combined with vessel-specific technical data (engine, fuel, etc.). The developed model was used to estimate TSHD emission inventory and for a comparative analysis with other known contributors such as Haifa industrial plants and the transportation sector. The main finding refutes the claim of success of the Haifa LEZ program. The third study focuses on the economic impact of the IMO Sulfur air pollution marine emissions reduction policy on carriers, as well as on socio-economic factors in the field of international liner shipping. This study evaluates the economic impact of developing a Trade Lane (TL) Sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA) Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) framework, based on the carrier problem, and choosing an appropriate compliance action from a selection of alternatives, differentiated by compliance techniques. The main findings indicate that alternative fuels and fuel switch techniques were found to be more economical and less destructive to industry (fuel switch) and less harmful to society in terms of health and pollutions (Hybrid). The dissertation’s innovation lies in the description of the generic framework models for the daily port/shoreline emission inventory and the TL SECA CBA model. These generic framework models are flexible and can be easily adjusted to other ports and known trade lanes worldwide for analysis of future regulation economic impact along with an effectiveness analysis.