טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
Ph.D Thesis
Ph.D StudentManal Hreib
SubjectVideo Surveillance and the Impact of Feedback
DepartmentDepartment of Industrial Engineering and Management
Supervisors Full Professor Erev Ido
Professor Emeritus Erez Miriam
Full Thesis textFull thesis text - English Version


Abstract

Previous studies of rule enforcement using closed circuit television camera (CCTV) highlight a "parking lot puzzle:" CCTV was found to be highly effective in reducing car related crimes, but almost not effective at all in reducing many other crimes (Welsh & Farrington, 2009; Armitage, 2002).  The current analysis takes several steps toward clarifying this puzzle and enhancing the effectiveness the CCTV. Study 1 shows that part of the limited impact of CCTV outside parking lots is likely to be a reflection of underweighting of rare events (Barron & Erev, 2003).  Visit to CCTV control centers, in Israel, reveals that the probability of detecting crimes in public areas is extremely small.  The operators have to monitor too many screens. Car related crimes are unique because car owners are likely to detect and report them.  Study 1B highlights a problematic consequence of the limited effect of CCTV in preventing vandalism in Beduin villages in the south of Israel.  It seems that the authorities try to prevent vandalism by not building not renovating play areas that can be vandalized.  Study 1C suggests that one of the reasons for the ineffective use of CCTV is that the managers that are responsible for the plays area do not want to confront the people (often children) responsible to vandalism.  That is, using the CCTV data for gentle enforcement tend to be too expensive. Study 2 tries to find cheap ways to use CCTV.  The results show that informing potential violators of the rules that a particular area is covered by CCTV has some effect, but the effect is not large.  In contrast, simple text messages that inform the violators that their violation was detected, and might be punished, was highly effective. Study 3 highlights the value of another method to reduce the cost of enforcing rules using CCTV data.  It shows that managers of daycare centers are happy to allow sending feedback to their workers, even when the feedback implies detection of rule violation, when the messages are focused on the probability of obtaining prizes.  In addition, the results suggest that delayed realization of the prizes are more effective than immediate realization.