Ph.D Thesis


Ph.D StudentSavuskan Vitali
SubjectSingle Photon Avalanche Diode (Spad) Characterization and
Readout Design
DepartmentDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Supervisor PROFESSOR EMERITUS Yael Nemirovsky


Abstract

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating above breakdown are known as Geiger mode APDs. They offer many advantages in terms of single photon response, high gain at low bias voltage, high detection efficiency and fast timing response. Photon counting detectors may find many applications where the detection of very weak and fast optical signals is required. Geiger mode silicon single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) arrays may provide a possible alternative to vacuum multiplier tubes but are still not available commercially. The fundamental topics of Geiger mode single photon avalanche photodiodes implemented in CMOS technology were extensively delved into, including: operating principles, figures of merit, ancillary circuitry and applications. The research has yielded high performance, low noise and high detection efficiency, SPADs. SPAD application oriented ancillary circuitry was developed both for in-pixel and beyond the pixel usage. Novel methodologies in detector design and operation were devised. Finally, novel 2D SPAD imager demonstrators were designed, manufactured and tested.