טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentArazi Aharon
SubjectUsing Incentivized Feedback Devices For Reducing Driver
Speeding Behavior
DepartmentDepartment of Industrial Engineering and Management
Supervisor Professor Ido Erev
Full Thesis textFull thesis text - English Version


Abstract

Recent years has shown the development of electronic devices that can be installed in vehicles to record information and relay feedback to the driver. The current research tests various strategies for using these devices for encouraging safer driving. To minimize the ‘Big Brother’ problem the work focuses on devices that can be connected (users can disconnect the device whenever they want). Experiment 1 tested the influence of fines and prizes on the tendency to select the optimal speed and activate the monitoring device. 140 Technion students participated in the ‘Speed Selection’ task on the computer in exchange for monetary compensation based on performance (35 to 45 NIS). The task was to select a speed between 60 and 120 by pressing either a ‘Speed’ or ‘Brake’ button. After each trial (press of button), the participant received feedback about speed and points (which could translate to money.) Higher speeds gave more points, but also increased risk of  ‘accident’ (receiving minus 100 points). After 100 trials, participants were informed that the optimal speed was 90, and offered to install a device. There were four experimental conditions in a 2X2 design based on device type: a Fine device that, when activated, reduces a point for speeds above 100, a Bonus device that, when activated, gives 0.02 points, a None device that gives a reminder (blinking light) whenever participant exceeds 100, and a Both device that penalizes -1 for exceeding 100, and gives a 0.02 bonus for speeds below 100. The results indicated a high willingness to install the device (75%) regardless of the device type. Comparing average speeds between the conditions showed a main effect for fines in significantly reducing the average speed and percentage of violations. The device usage rate (or disconnection rate) did not differ between conditions. In Study 2, 20 Technion students underwent the ‘Speed Selection’ task but were not offered to install a device after being told that optimal speed is 90. Average speeds were significantly lower after being informed of the optimal speed. This means that within the context of our experiment, being offered to install a device does not result in reduction of speed beyond being notified of the optimal speed. To conclude, in our laboratory experiment small immediate fines helped reduce excessive speeding. This is an encouraging start as the groundwork for field research using this device paradigm in vehicle safety devices.