|Ph.D Student||Nouri Rikki|
|Subject||Creativity across the Universe: The Influence of Cultural,|
Social and Task Contexts on Creativity
|Department||Department of Industrial Engineering and Management||Supervisor||PROFESSOR EMERITUS Miriam Erez|
|Full Thesis text|
This Dissertation focuses on creativity in the cultural, social and work contexts. It introduces the context into the culture and creativity research by emphasizing the importance of the culture by context interaction. The first paper attempts to answer the question whether creativity is universal or culture specific. It further proposes that different cultures emphasize different aspects of creativity, which consists of novelty and usefulness, and that the emphasis on each one of them depends also on the social work context. The second paper investigates creativity and performance in the context of working in multicultural teams, compared to mono-cultural teams, and thus investigates cultural diversity effects on creativity. It also investigates the nature of the task as either a well-structured "execute" task, or a loosely structured creativity task, and its interaction with cultural diversity. The third paper investigates the interaction effects of culture and different work contexts of working under a supervisor, or working in the presence of peers, compared to working alone and privately. Overall, a total of 694 students participated in experiments conducted in Israel, Singapore, China, Hong-Kong and the USA. The research hypotheses were tested using ANOVA, ANCOVA, hierarchical regressions, moderated mediation procedures, and non-parametric tests. The integration of the three papers revealed that 1) the cultural origin of an individual or the cultural composition of the team influences creativity 2) the immediate work context of task type and task specificity interact with team cultural diversity to affect team performance outcomes and creativity and 3) the immediate social context of working in the presence of supervisor, peers or alone, interacts with culture to affect creativity. Hence, we need to take into consideration the characteristics of the task context and the social context at work in order to understand the effect of culture on creativity. These interaction effects help understand why studies that took place in difference work contexts in terms of the task type and the social context showed inconsistent results.