M.Sc Thesis

M.Sc StudentDavidson Michael
SubjectDetecting Acute Kidney Injury through Exhaled Breath
Using Nanosensors Array
DepartmentDepartment of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Supervisors PROF. Hossam Haick
PROF. Zaid A. Abassi
Full Thesis textFull thesis text - English Version


Acute kidney injury (AKI), a rapid loss of renal function due to damage to the kidneys, is a common condition with a high risk of death. The standard methods used to define and monitor the progression of AKI are insensitive, nonspecific, and meaningful only after significant kidney injury and even then with a substantial time delay. This delay in diagnosis significantly affects the preclinical evaluation of toxicity thereby allowing potentially nephrotoxic drug candidates to pass the preclinical safety criteria only to be found to be clinically nephrotoxic with great human costs. In this study, we used various experimental models of AKI in Sprague Dawley rats to check the possibility of identifying and monitoring AKI at the early stages of the disease through exhaled breath samples. Towards this end, breath and blood samples were collected from normal rats (control) and rats with AKI at different time points of the disease. Blood samples were tested for creatinine and BUN, and breath samples were analyzed using a cross-reactive nanosensors and Gas-Chromatography/Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS) in conjugation with preconcentration techniques. The results showed an ability to distinguish between rats with AKI and healthy animals. Furthermore, we were able to monitor the progress of the AKI at different stages of the disease. In few cases, the breath tests showed earlier detection of the AKI, as compared to equivalent conventional techniques. These results suggest that cross reactive nanosensors analysis may be used in the future for diagnosis, detection, and screening various stages of acute kidney injury, especially in the early stages of the disease, where it is possible to control blood pressure and protein intake to slow the progression of the disease.