M.Sc Thesis

M.Sc StudentDrori Daphna
SubjectA Knowledge Based Computer-Aided Design Tool for Water
Efficient Design of Sustainable Green
Open Spaces
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor PROFESSOR EMERITUS Edna Shaviv
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


The water issue is a crucial matter today, more than ever. There is a constant growth in water demand due to the increase in the population and the rise in standard of living. Moreover, the water supply demands energy's investment at every stage of the process: deriving water and conveyance. Thus, any raise in water usage contributes to the increase of energy consumption. In order to reduce water consumption, governments tend to choose the easy way by simply raising the water cost, which might cause the drying out of the gardens, as happened in Israel. The intelligent way to implement water efficiency policy is not necessarily by eliminating the "green", but by a proper design of water efficient gardens. In order to design Water Efficient Gardens (WEG), a Knowledge Based Computer-Aided Design Tool (KBCAD tool) was developed. Special emphasis was put on the climatic adjustment of the garden for the comfort of the plants and the people in a similar way that bio-climatic buildings are designed. This includes: considering the solar radiation, wind and orientation, in order to maximize the microclimate conditions of the garden, and to minimize the evapotranspiration from the plants and soil. The design tool is based on the "Pattern Language", conceived by Christopher Alexander and implemented by Edward Mazria in “The Passive Solar Design Handbook”. The "Pattern Language" is characterized by a decision making process that reflects customized choices and flexible implementation. This KBCAD tool is presented by eighty seven patterns, that direct the planner to adjust the design to the autochthonous conditions of the site and recommends a variety of options for effective and efficient design. The WEG Tool includes a quantitative part that is integrated with the qualitative part and enables an evaluation during and after the design process. Application of the tool enhances the implementation of sustainable development in general and water sensitive design in particular. Moreover, it was used to define the reference garden for the performance-based method, as well as the improved gardens for the prescriptive-descriptive based method, which are presented in the water chapter of the Israeli “Sustainable Building” standard (SI 5281).