|M.Sc Student||Cohen Orit|
|Subject||The Effect of Agent's Anger Expressions on Target's Emotion|
|Department||Department of Industrial Engineering and Management||Supervisor||Professor Anat Rafaeli|
|Full Thesis text|
Anger expressions of one person (agent) can have a significant effect on the emotion and behavior of other people (targets). Thus far, previous research has focused mainly on the effects of agent’s anger on their performance, or on the target’s performance, but did not consider the unique effects of different types of anger expressions. Therefore, a question examined in this study was whether there is a difference in the effects of agent’s anger that was expressed directly vs. indirectly. We manipulated direct anger and indirect anger, by using angry and sarcastic expressions respectively. The study examined the effects of agent’s direct and indirect expressions of anger on participants’ (targets’) emotions and performance. 184 undergraduate students participating were asked to listen to a voice mail message, memorize and then summarize the details mentioned in it; Messages were designed to include either direct or indirect expressions of anger, as well as no anger expression (control condition). Afterwards, participants completed self-report emotion measures and performed either a creative or a structured task. Our findings demonstrate that participants who were the targets of direct expression of anger displayed lower performance of both the anger-related-task (summarizing the message) and the creative task (anger-unrelated-task) relative to participants who were the targets of indirect expression of anger. Participants who were the targets of direct or indirect expressions of anger reported higher levels of negative emotion and fatigue than participants who were exposed to no anger expression. The findings of the current study emphasize the importance of separating between different forms of anger expressions, and also illustrate the utility of a focus on discrete emotions rather than a general study of positive and negative affective states.