טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentShir Ilia
SubjectRemote Sensing of Emissions from Vehicles with Spark
Ignition Engines
DepartmentDepartment of Mechanical Engineering
Supervisors Professor Emeritus Yoram Zvirin (Deceased)
Dr. Leonid Tartakovsky
Full Thesis textFull thesis text - English Version


Abstract

Vehicular emissions, including those resulting from inefficient combustion have been identified as a major contributor to the poor ambient air quality in urban and rural areas. The rapidly increasing vehicle fleet and the high rate of urbanization are major contributing factors to the increase in air pollution levels.

The emissions of Carbon monoxide - CO, Nitrogen oxides - NOX, Hydrocarbons - HC, diesel particulate matter - PM, contribute to the formation of photochemical smog, acid deposition and elevated CO levels, while reactions of NOX and HCs also contribute to Ozone (O3) formation. These pollutants cause respiratory problems, increase toxicity and mortality, and the effects are more severe in urban areas, where traffic is dense. Therefore enforcement of emission regulations of these constituents in the automobile exhaust gases is important to urban air quality control for the protection of human health and the environment.

Recently, in an effort to control and reduce these emissions, the remote sensing (RS) technology was introduced. Remote sensing (RS) of vehicle exhaust does not require physical sampling of exhaust gases from stationary vehicles but instead, uses a non-intrusive measurement method while the vehicles are moving. The testing capacity of RS system is far greater than conventional system - an RS device can perform inspections of thousands of vehicles per day. Taking into account the high correlation between pollutants emission by the vehicle and its mechanical condition, remote sensing will be an important tool in identification of potentially defected vehicles. Nevertheless, the existing commercial RS systems have several inherent problems: they are expensive, the measurements sometimes are unreliable, the system set-up is complicated, and those systems usually require complex calibration schemes.

The current research is aimed to overcome two main limitations of existent on road remote sensing systems: measurement's accuracy & reliability and high cost of the systems, while enabling correlation to environmental laws and regulations.

This research is concentrated on creating open path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIS) system, suitable for on road remote sensing applications for gaseous emissions measurements, while utilizing the LIDAR technique for PM detection and concentration measurement.