טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
Ph.D Thesis
Ph.D StudentShachar Oryan
Subject" A Circular World - A Right Angle World"
Modern Architectures and Urban Communities
at Hatzor Ha'Glilit 1950-1976
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisors Professor Alona Nitzan-Shiftan
Ms. Rachel Sebba
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

This dissertation explores the role of architecture in the creation of local, communal and national identity, by focusing on the first three decades of the Hatzor HaGlilit settlement.

This study exposes the gap between the image of Hatzor HaGlilit?as a peripheral, unified, modernistic urban settlement, typical to the State of Israel?and its reality as a place of unique, local expressions, revealing dialectic ideas and conflicting forces.

My architectural investigation is arranged around three “gates,” or central entryways into understanding the town, each of which focuses on a different architectural stratum.

The first gate focuses on the shift in the area, during the 1950's, from earlier patterns of rural settlement to a modern urban layout. During this period authority over planning was transferred from the Jewish Agency and the Jewish National Fund to state institutions, headed by Israel’s Planning Division. Accordingly, the Palestinian village of Firim  had been first converted into Pe'er-Am, a Jewish labor village, and then was “cancelled” by the planning division that transferred most of its residents to the new town of Hatzor HaGlilit. These shifts embody both the practical and theoretical dilemmas involved in architectural change, and the conflicts that result.

The second gate examines the efforts to link Hatzor and the state’s heritage during the 1960s. The discussion focuses on two historical sites: Honi ha-M'agel's grave in Hatzor HaGlilit, designed by architect Meir Ben Uri, and the Archaeological Museum of Hatzor, designed by architect David Reznik. I argue that these sites express the competing myths of Yitzhak Ben-Zvi and David Ben Gurion about the connection between the modern Jew and his country. The first preserves a Talmudic commemoration, where belonging is a historical sequence of worship. The second "skips" the exile past and exposes the biblical memory.

The third gate examines the erection in the 1970’s of the Gerrer Hassidic Quarter at Hatzor HaGlilit. This encounter?between the ultra-Orthodox community, the architect David Reznick, and the Ministry of Housing?illuminates the hidden connections between the ultra-Orthodox community, state institutions, and modern architectural philosophies.

A focus on these  different strata demonstrates the links across time and architectural ideologies, and reveals how each stratum turns towards a different past: the immediate past of the Arab villages; the Cabalistic-Hassidic character of the area; and Talmudic and biblical memory. In each stratum we see how architecture attempts to inlay historical, communal, popular and traditional perceptions into the rigid design approach and unifying goals of the modernist state.