טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentCohen David
SubjectLectins-Biochip Fingerprint Relation to Physicochemical
Properties of Gum Arabic
DepartmentDepartment of Biotechnology
Supervisor Dr. Eyal Shimoni
Full Thesis textFull thesis text - English Version


Abstract

Technological advances in miniaturization in biotechnology signal the beginning of a new revolution. One of the exciting developments in this field is biochip-based glycoanalysis. Plants normally produce proteins as a mixture of the same protein containing multiple different patterns of glycans, these glycoforms have different biological and biochemical characteristics. Consequently, knowledge of the detailed glycan structure and glycoform composition will increase the probability of success at each stage in discovery, quality control as well as product development and manufacture. The study aims at tailoring this biotechnological method for use in the food science research and development arena, starting with a highly variable food additive - Gum Arabic.

Gum arabic is the finest and one of the oldest natural exudates produced from various species of the Acacia trees. Gum arabic is used in various industries such as food, beverages, medicine etc. The unique physicochemical properties of this exude are as a finest emulsifier; thickener etc. It has a high diversity of quality levels, which depends on the source of the raw material. Thus, a reliable and simple method is required to identify the type and quality of gum arabic. The goal of the study was to use a technology based on biochips for quality control, identification and characterization of the natural biopolymer gum arabic. To characterize the chemistry and functionality of gum arabic using lectin-based biochip, gum  samples, from different sources, were analyzed to determined their mono-saccharides composition, protein concentration, water content and ash. The samples were fractionated using gel permeation chromatography. The physical functionalities of the gum were evaluated for emulsion properties. The rheological properties of gum arabic in solution were also measured. Then, the fingerprint of the gum was determined using the lectins-based biochip. Eventually, using multiple regression we correlated the gum arabic fingerprint, chemical composition, and its physical functionalities. The results of the study showed that there are differences in the physicochemical properties between gum arabic from the various sources. It was demonstrated that high molecular weight polymer and lectin based biochip can be reacted to give a fingerprint. Moreover, the different samples of gum arabic exhibit different fingerprints, indicative of the variability of their sources. The statistic analysis of multiple regression establish a significant equations which correlate most of the chemical and physical properties of gum arabic to its fingerprint. Thus, the fingerprint of gum arabic may enable in the future to predict its physicochemical properties.