טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
Ph.D Thesis
Ph.D StudentShach-Pinsly Dalit
SubjectThe Development of a Model for Analyzing Visual Openness and
Visual Exposure in Residendential Clusters
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisors Professor Michael Burt
Dr. Dafna Fisher Gewirtzm
Full Thesis textFull thesis text - English Version


Abstract

'Visual Openness' to the view and 'Visual Exposure' relating to privacy in the urban environment are considered two important elements that affect the quality of the environment. In this research, we will introduce objective quantitative models to measure and analyze 'Visual Openness' to the view and 'Visual Exposure' as related to privacy based on plane geometry. These models may have a central role in future planning and design processes.


Urban environments with adjacent open spaces are attractive. Many people and economic interests are interested in such locations. Financially, pressure exists to intensify the forward strip of built-up areas, which may lead to a visual barrier for those in the interior urban environment. This may result in the deterioration of its quality and to a reduction of real estate values.  In order to achieve return on investment, resulting from high urban density, urban attractiveness must be preserved where one of its dominant components is environmental quality. One attribute of environmental quality is 'Visual Openness' to the view. ‘Visual Exposure’, which refers to aspects of privacy, is also a major factor influencing environmental quality. However, a conflict may occur between these two qualities. Visual openness to the view is positive insofar as it does not overexpose and disturb the visual exposure of residents as related to privacy.


This research contributes three principal models:

1)      Development of an objective quantitative model for analyzing 'Visual Exposure' in the urban environment.

2)      Enhancement of a quantitative model for analyzing 'Visual Openness' to the view (which was developed in Shach-Pinsly, 2002).

3)      Development of an integrated model to measure 'Visual Openness' and 'Visual Exposure' together.

All of these models were applied on three case studies, two in Israel: the Bavli neighborhood at Tel-Aviv, and Bat-Galim in Haifa, and one in Nora Hamnen, Helsingbor, Sweden.


The analysis and comparative evaluation of all three case studies yields several findings and conclusions, among them is the fact that there are differences between street level and the floor levels above. The main geometric component affecting visual openness and visual exposure in the urban environment is the distance between buildings. The results of the measurements highlight the advantage of such an objective approach. In the future, these models can be of great value in monitoring, controling and upgrading urban morphologies and in the planning and development process of urban environments.