|M.Sc Student||Kremer Sivan|
|Subject||The Interplay between the Dual Performance Goals of|
Creativity and Efficiency under Different Goal
|Department||Department of Industrial Engineering and Management||Supervisor||Professor Emeritus Miriam Erez|
|Full Thesis text|
The growing emphasis on creativity as reflected in novel and appropriate ideas sometimes overlooks the need to be efficient and meet time and budget constraints (George & Zhou, 2001). This study investigates under what conditions the balance between creativity and efficiency is best maintained. Two studies were conducted: Study-I examined the effects of a dual goal paradigm with different levels of goal specificity on the best simultaneous scores of creativity and efficiency. Participants were 124 students, who were asked to perform a computerized word anagram task, with two sub-goals: a) generate original words; b) maintain certain cost level, as each letter used has a certain cost. There were four goal conditions which varied in their level of specificity. In addition, some personal dispositions were assessed. The results of experiment 1 demonstrated that when one sub-goal was specific and the other one was general performance was significantly higher for the specific than the general goal, hence, creating a trade-off between the two performance measures. Yet, when the two sub-goals were specific and difficult the overall performance level was the lowest, compared to all other conditions, and in contrast to the goal-setting theory. Furthermore, when the two goals were either specific or general, personal dispositions influenced performance: conscientiousness negatively affected creative performance while creative self efficacy had a positive effect on it.
Study-II aimed at testing an additional framing effect which directs attention towards creativity or towards cost effectiveness, when the two sub-goals were equal in their level of specificity. Results of Study-II demonstrated that the framing of efficiency enhanced performance efficiency, but the creativity framing did not have a significant effect on creative performance. However, the overall performance score of both sub-goals was higher under the difficult goal with efficiency framing than with no framing. Implications of these findings will be further discussed.