|M.Sc Student||Rozental Rosa|
|Subject||Analysis and Principles for Improveing Spatial Aspects of|
|Department||Department of Architecture and Town Planning||Supervisor||Professor Iris Aravot|
This study presents a model for the description, analysis and evaluation of urban spaces, based on central twentieth century approaches and theories.
It presumes that the major contribution of the urban designers is the three dimensional manipulation of urban form, and therefore concentrates on the definition of nominal and relational scale parameters of space.
The two main aims of the study are: (1) to summarize and organize the existing knowledge and value approaches to urban space design; and (2) to create a model for the description, analysis and evaluation of urban spaces which clearly suffer from deficiencies of modernist planning.
In Israel this category includes many new towns principally those recognized as development towns The fact that they can be characterized by the short time dedicated to their establishment, and extremely difficult economic and social conditions, created by the absorption of vast emigration waves, demonstrates that the question of urban renewal towards urban space quality becomes an urgent practical problem.
In this study, emphasis is placed on knowledge and ideological concepts that have immediate relevance to the urban surrounding as a three dimensional phenomena. The theories and approaches that have influenced the development of the model include Sitte (1889), Maertens (1890), Goldfinger (1941), Blumenfeld (1953), Lynch (1960), Cullen (1960), Thiel (1962), Appleyard, Lynch and Myer (1964), Bacon (1967), Ashihara (1970), Norberg-Schulz (1971) and Halprin (1972).
The approaches which were surveyed are organized into two categories of elements of urban design: fundamental elements and basic components, which represent static and dynamic considerations.
Each parameter and sub parameter of those categories is further divided, until clearly perceptible spatial compositions are discerned. The fundamental elements category consists of the macro-parameters of urbanism. It includes six subcategories: landmarks, skyline, landline, connection with the horizontal planform, frame of reference and relationship to man. The basic components category consists of macro-parameters of the study domain. It includes three subcategories: elements of progression, elements of contrast and elements of character. These elements form the Townscape Vocabulary which present a space quality determination approach and constitute the Theoretical Model.
Four development towns in Israel were selected for detailed study and, subsequently, subjected to application of the model on their town centers: Afula, Tirat Carmel, Natzereth Illit and Carmiel. The application of the model consists of two parts: (a) notation on a town plan; and (b) sequential analysis of the space, from several viewpoints. For the first part a series of graphic signs is offered, each sign representing an urban space element. Each new town center was analyzed as to whether or not it includes any one of the elements (nominal scale). When an element was found to be present, it was further analyzed as to its quality of existence on site (ordinal scale): (1) good quality; (2) indirect existence (i.e., by means of another element); (3) minor quality; and (4) unsatisfying quality. The second part of the analysis is based on a personal perception and evaluation of the phenomena and offers proposals for intervention according to the model.
The study requires two types of discussions and conclusions: (a) those relating to the research method and tools; and (b) those relating to the current urban spaces of the town centers of the development towns.
(a) 1. From the review of the model’s development, we conclude that it needs further elaboration, so as to express knowledge and conventional values not only of three dimensional characteristics, but also more empirical considerations such as the inhabitants’ preferences (methods should be employed to encourage people to react meaningfully to the issues of space quality).
(a) 2. Various methodological problems which have not been addressed by precedents.
(b) Conclusions about the research objects are not surprising in their general tendency, but they help to identify problems, especially acknowledgment of lack of spatial elements. The study -addresses solutions to those problems by minimum formal manipulation, so as to interfere as little as possible.