טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
Ph.D Thesis
Ph.D StudentSofer Michal
SubjectThe Time Dimension in Statutory Planning in Israel
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Emeritus Rachelle Alterman


Abstract

Planning in its essence is an activity in the present for the benefit of the future. The elusive character of time pushes the outcomes of planning from the present, so, when implementation arrives, the plan that was proposed as a vision is possessed by the past. The complex relationship between time and planning holds an important key to the success or failure of planning in general, and of statutory planning in particular.


This research examines the manner in which a statutory planning system relates to the time dimension in plan-making and planning control. A survey of literature in planning theory revealed four aspects of time in planning: 1) The time range or horizon of plans; 2) The timing of initiation of plan-making; 3) The duration of the plan-making and approval processes 4) The timing controls of plan implementation. A theoretical framework is developed which examines the possible formats whereby these four aspects of time are related to each other.


With these concepts as guides, the research proceeds to examine the statutory planning system in Israel. It delves into the law, offering an in-depth examination of the manner in which the written legislation as well as court decisions has interpreted the four dimensions of time in planning noted above The legal analysis is carried out on two levels. On the one level, we analyze the laws and court-decisions in order to clarify the current binding legal norms. The purpose of the second level of analysis is to reveal the underlying concept of planning assumed by the law and its evolution.


A further empirical effort was made to evaluate how the authorities actually apply the legal arrangement in some of the more important issues, among others: The effect of legislative effort on reducing characteristic durations of plan approval; Timing of land expropriation age of plans; Tools for development control during the plan-making.


The findings indicate that there are numerous internal contradictions within the law itself, which raise serious doubts about the capacity of the planning system to offer up-to-date plans that react appropriately to changes in the urban system. The planning concept that emerges from the law does not fit within any consistent set of planning concepts offered by the planning theories we examined. There is a large gap between the legal makeup and the criteria evolved from our theoretical analysis of the four subjects of time in planning. The empirical study reveals large gaps between the legal arrangement and the actual doing. Further more, it indicates a failure of the legal mechanisms in regulating rationally or effectively the time - planning issues.