טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
Ph.D Thesis
Ph.D StudentDavidouici Ronit
SubjectThe Event and the Context - a Theoretical Approach to
Person-Environment-Planning
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Emeritus Arza Churchman


Abstract

The dissertation presents the event and context approach (eventextualism) as a theoretical and methodological approach to research in the fields of person-environment and planning. The Event and the context approach propose a definition that distinguishes between event and context. The event is a series of activities that take place in a defined environment by a group of participants. The event is holistic, and needs to be characterized by spatial, social, economic and other terms. The event is similar to the context in all its characteristics, except for scale: the context is always broader than the event; it includes it. The definition which distinguishes between events and contexts enabled the adoption of the principle of fractals which constitutes the methodological alternative to the division of situations according to fields and separate components. The principle of fractals enables the distinction between contexts, events and sub-events without harming comprehensiveness. The methodological implications were derived and added to the approach a vocabulary of basic terms and a proposed research process.

The empirical research examined the daily events of households within different residential and employment contexts. The daily events included a wide variety of daily activities inside and outside the home. The household constitutes the unit of analysis of the research. The residential contexts in the research were Reut-Maccabim, a small suburban settlement, and Shikun Lamed in Tel-Aviv, an urban neighborhood. The households were divided into two contexts of employment: single wage-earner households and dual wage-earner households. The sample consisted of 45 households where both adults were interviewed. Findings were obtained in terms of patterns of daily events inside and outside the home and in terms of profiles of daily events.

37 out of 43 households were found to be characterized by the profile in which the woman is the leading performer of daily events: she plays the main role in these events and uses a larger settlement scale than her spouse. The most common profile found is characterized by consensus between the spouses, reaches the interurban settlement range, and the couple tends to relate to changes positively. The profiles represented the recurring characteristics, the points of similarity between the daily events beyond the different contexts. In order to complete the findings all the characteristics of the profiles were tested in different contexts, in order to consider the changing emphases from context to context.

The event and the context approach enable the attainment of a new planning model product. Such a planning process leads to planning units which reflect the events, and to multidisciplinary clusters of plans, designed to enable the occurrence of events.

The presentation of the ‘event and context approach’ as a theoretical approach, into which research contents from the person-environment field and other planning contents may be cast, may promote the reciprocity between these two fields. An identical theoretical base, similar methodology, and common basic terms may be used to connect between the fields of planning and of person-environment.