M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc Student Basher Loai Determining the Photogrammetric Model Orientation by Using Geodetic Observations and Geometric Constrains Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Assistant Professor Uzi Ethrog

Abstract

The photogrametric process common in companies dealing with photogrametric mapping includes several stages like: relative orientation, Absolute orientation, planimetric features and, topography mapping etc. The errors that are done at each of these stages, even though they are small and meet all the standards, they accumulate and damage the accuracy of the next stages and eventually damage the esthetics of the produced map. For example the buildings' fronts are not in straight lines and not perpendicular or parallel to each other. This is the reason why additional step, of "polishing" the map, is needed. A lot of time and human operator work is spent in order to give the planimetric features a "sensible" shape. While doing that the accuracy of the map is damaged and the basic condition of the observations adjustment is not kept. Moreover, there is no uniformity in producing the maps. Maps drawn by two operators for the same area will be different.

An additional stage of mapping is the completions and adding details that were measured in a geodetic way or were taken from existing maps or data pool. This work is often done relative to the existing details on the map, therefore the accurate measures are twisted in such a way that they will fit the less precise location and shape of the details drawn over the map in an non-photogrametric way.

The purpose of the research is to develop a uniform Adjustment Process based on the bundle adjustment principals in whom the map "polishing" is unnecessary and all the photogrametric mapping steps are done, simultaneously according to defined mathematical principals. For that purpose, we need:

1. Formulate in a mathematical language the geometric constraints that must be fulfilled by the coordination of the points creating the planimetric features. These constraints form conditional equations between the unknown parameters, which are integrated in the bundle adjustment process.
2. Combining geodetic measurements of data taken from other sources in observation equations or condition equations that are integrated in the Adjustment Process.
3. The simultaneous adjustment of all unknown will create “giant” matrixes. Therefore, another goal of the research will be finding a way to overcome those matrixes with a PC computer.

The maps received in the suggested method in this research should be more trustworthy and uniform than the maps form in the regular methods nowadays.