|M.Sc Student||Aron )Berman( Dafna|
|Subject||Orientation and Navigation in 3D Interface|
|Department||Department of Industrial Engineering and Management||Supervisors||Professor Avi Parush|
|Professor Avraham Shtub|
The current paper describes an experiment, investigating the effectiveness of navigation aides and landmarks, in performing navigation and orientation tasks in a 3D-desktop. The study was divided into two main phases: learning and a test of learning transfer. The learning phase consisted of participants directly navigating (search for objects) in the on-screen 3D-Desktop using one of two navigation aids: a visual map or a route list. In addition, there were two 3D-Desktops, one with landmarks and the other without landmarks. Learning transfer was examined by testing both navigation and orientation tasks (relative-direction pointing) in the environment without the use of the navigation aids. Findings show that while the initial navigation with a map appeared to be harder, with longer navigation times, this difference became insignificant at the end of the learning phase. Moreover, performance degradation upon removal of the navigation aids was less for those that navigated with a map as compared to route list. A similar pattern was found for the impact of landmarks. Initial navigation with landmarks appeared to be harder than without landmarks, but this difference became insignificant at the end of the learning phase. The orientation test revealed that maps improved performances in terms of number of correct answers, more than route lists. The findings are discussed in terms of the impact of navigations aids and landmarks on the acquisition of route and survey knowledge in spatial cognition. In addition, some gender differences are discussed in terms of different strategies in spatial cognition acquisition.