M.Sc Thesis

M.Sc StudentGochman Einat
SubjectThe Effect of Intense Exercise on Oxidative Stress in
Body Fluids of Smoking and Non Smoking
DepartmentDepartment of Medicine
Supervisors ASSOCIATE PROF. Abraham Reznick


Introduction: Exhaustive exercise is associated with an accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), usually balanced by antioxidant defense systems. Cigarette smoke causes a sustained oxidative stress, which may lead to synergistic effects of smoking and exercise on oxidative processes.

Objectives: To characterize smoking, exercise and oxidative status of healthy smokers.

.Methods: Thirty young, healthy examinees mean age 24y, have performed exercise on a treadmill. Plasma oxidation (lipid and protein oxidation) and antioxidants (vitamin A, vitamin E, total carotenoids) were measured. Enzymatic activity was measured in saliva and in plasma. Urine microalbumin and myoglobin were also quantitated.

Results: Exercise was followed by protein oxidation in both smoking and non-smoking groups (p< 0.05). Level of lipid peroxides and Plasma conjugated dienes were significantly elevated (p=0.04) in smokers following exercise. TBARS levels and CuSO4 induced LDL oxidation, were not affected by exercise test. All antioxidants levels were significantly lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers: (P < 0.002) before and after exercise.

Increase in urine microalbumin and myoglobin, plasma CPK and LDH, were observed after exercise in both groups plasma. Plasma CRP levels and saliva oral peroxidase were higher in the smoking group.

Summary: Our results suggest an unnoticed interaction between smoking and exercise, expressed by abnormal and increased levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress and kidney/ muscle functions, probably due to low plasma antioxidants in the smoking group. Such alterations in oxidative, inflammatory and enzymatic functions in young smokers may require further studies aimed to balance such abnormalities by dietary/ lifestyle modifications.