הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראלXyz
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים 
Ph.D Theses

DepartmentArchitecture and Town Planning
Department Web Site architecture.technion.ac.il

No.   Student's Name Advisors Graduation
Abstracts Theses Abstract Title
 1 Arbel Lior Yoav Schechner

Noam Amir
2020 Abstracts  Symbaline - an Active Wine Glass Musical Instrument
 2 Holzer Sadeh Jennifer Merri Daniel Eli Orenstein2020 Abstracts  Evaluating Activities and Impacts of Socio-Ecological@Research in the Long-Term Socio-Ecological@Research Network
 3 Goldberg Sarah Naomi Carmon

Deborah Shmueli
2020 Abstracts  And They Took to the Streets: The 2011 Social Protests@in Tel Aviv and New York
 4 Sopher Hadas Yehuda Kalay2020 Abstracts Theses The Notion of Place In Design Education@A Situated Learning Model, using an Immersive@Virtual Environment
 5 Segre Hila Assaf Shwartz

Yohay Carmel
2020 Abstracts  Modeling Alternatives for Planning and Management of@Ecological Corridors in Agricultural Environments
 6 Pilosof Nirit Yehuda Kalay2019 Abstracts Theses Planning for Change: Evaluation of Hospital Design@Strategies
 7 Ben Dror Maya Pnina Plaut2019 Abstracts Theses The Role of Social Media in Transportation Policy
 8 Shalom Efrat Nurit Lissovsky

Nurit Yaari
2019 Abstracts Theses Fiction-Reality Relations: Affinities between Urban-Scape@in Theatre and the Contemporaneous Surrounding@Space. Tel-Aviv as Case Study
 9 Melamed Rachel Dafna Fisher Gewirtzm2019 Abstracts Theses The Balance Between Physical Closure and Openness in Office@Workspaces and the Connection to Interaction@Between Workers and Their Need for@Privacy
 10 Austern Guy Yasha Jacob Grobman

Isaac Guedi Capeluto
2019 Abstracts Theses Rationalization of Molds for Complex Architectural@Geometries
 11 Drori Daphna Edna Shaviv

Abraham Yezioro
2019 Abstracts Theses A Green Retrofit of Existing Residential Building in Israel
 12 Carmon-Popper Irit Alona Nitzan-Shiftan2019 Abstracts Theses Art as Preservation: Interventions in Sites-in-Conflict,@Israel,1948-2008
 13 Herrmann Marnina Eden Gabriela Goldschmidt

Ella Miron-Spektor
2019 Abstracts Theses The Dynamic Relationship Between Constraints and Creativity:@The Effect of Timing
 14 Blonder Arielle Yasha Jacob Grobman2019 Abstracts Theses Introducing Fabric Materiality in Architectural Fibre@Reinforced Polymers
 15 Ayalon Sharon Tal Alon-Mozes

Meirav Aharon
2019 Abstracts Theses Staging Urbanism The intersection of Art, Space and@the Public
 16 Drori Micha Rachelle Alterman2018 Abstracts Theses Property Rights in the Rural-Agricultural Sector in Israel@from a Cross-National Comparative@Perspective
 17 Shabtay Ateret Michelle Portman

Yohay Carmel
2018 Abstracts Theses Enclosed Marine Areas and Infrastructures Along the Israeli@Mediterranean Coast: Burden or Benefit to the@Marine Environment?
 18 Abramovich Talia Marina Pliouchtch

Iris Aravot
2018 Abstracts Theses First "Moshavot" Settlements in Eretz Israel, 1878-1918@Public Space
 19 Abreek-Zubiedat Fatina Alona Nitzan-Shiftan2018 Abstracts Theses Architecture in Conflict beyond the Green Line@Gaza and Yamit Cities 1967-1982
 20 Sahly Amin Yosef Jabareen2018 Abstracts Theses Impacts of Globalization and Neo-Liberalism on Spatial and@Social Spaces in Developing Cities
 21 Armon-Zur Zurit Pnina Plaut2018 Abstracts Theses The Public Interest in Transportation Infrastructure@Development through Public-Private-Partnerships:@A Case Study of the Jerusalem@Rail Transit
 22 Belferman Ehud Iris Aravot

Orit Nuttman-Shwartz
2018 Abstracts Theses Architecture and Anxiety - The Physical Changes in Schools@as an Expression of Tendency Toward Real and@Symbolized Withdrawal and Self-Defense@of Society in Israel
 23 Hagiladi Na'amah Pnina Plaut2018 Abstracts  Social Networks and Travel Behaviour in the Urban@Environment
 24 Hindi Tali Noy Amnon Frenkel2018 Abstracts Theses Synergies in Science-Based Regional Innovation Systems (RIS)
 25 Schaumann Davide Yehuda Kalay2018 Abstracts  An Event-Based Model for Simulating Human Behavior Patterns@in Not Yet Built Environments
 26 Cotlier Gabriel Abraham Yezioro

Isaac Guedi Capeluto
2018 Abstracts Theses A GIS-Based Approach to Urban Bioclimatic Design and@Human Use of Open Public Spaces
 27 Shevah Dana Rachel Kallus2017 Abstracts Theses Social Dynamics, Urban Civility and Spatial Capacity in a@Newly-Mixed Town: The Case of Karmiel
 28 Oren Michelle Rachelle Alterman

Yaffa Zilbershats
2017 Abstracts  The Constitutional Right to housing: a public@Policy Approach
 29 Kay Zivia Iris Aravot2017 Abstracts  The "Signature of Appearance" at the Contemporary Urban@Space
 30 Ringel Gal Isaac Guedi Capeluto2017
 An Energetic Profile for Existing office Buildings
 31 Handel Dan Alona Nitzan-Shiftan2017 Abstracts Theses Isotropic Universe and Modular Grid: Economy and Space@in the Tefen Model, 1979-1991
 32 Kainer-Persov Nava Naomi Carmon2017 Abstracts Theses Housing Regeneration Strategies@Evaluation from a Social Equity Point of View
 33 Shilon Mor Rachel Kallus2017 Abstracts Theses Planning in the Global Era: A Socio-Relational Analysis of@Ben-Gurion International Airport
 34 Natapov Asya Dafna Fisher Gewirtzm

Daniel Czamanski
2016 Abstracts Theses Cities as Visuospatial Networks: Linking Visibility@of Urban Activities and Pedestrian Movement
 35 Feniger Neta Rachel Kallus2016
 Building a "New Middle East":@Israeli Architects in Iran 1962-1979
 36 Banna-Jeries Enaya Arza Churchman2016 Abstracts Theses Implementation of Procedural Justice in Planning@Decision Making Process@Case Study: Arab Townships
 37 Nir Chen Shaul Amir2016 Abstracts Theses Landscape as a Discourse: Environmental Concepts,@Policy and Agricultural Landscape - Bikat HaNadiv@Region as a Case study 1882-1918
 38 Gilad Shirily Tal Alon-Mozes2016 Abstracts Theses Perceptions of Nature in the Landscape of Tel Aviv:@The Environmental and Planning History of the@Yarkon Park
 39 Yizhar Dikla Rachel Kallus2016 Abstracts Theses Build Your Own Home: A Socio-Cultural Reading of the@productive user
 40 Milo-Shussman Yael Rachel Sebba2016 Abstracts Theses The Mutual Relationship between the Design of the Physical@Surround of the Learning Space, and the@Realization of the Pedagogic Objectives@in the Primary School
 41 Eldar Ranit Dafna Fisher Gewirtzm2016 Abstracts Theses Towards an Ergonomic Design Assessment Tool:@Visualizing Postural Comfort
 42 Toger Marina Daniel Czamanski

Itzhak Benenson
2016 Abstracts Theses Urban Open Spaces: Network Morphology, Dynamics and@Influence on Wildlife Foraging in Haifa
 43 Frankel-Cohen Iris Rachelle Alterman2016 Abstracts  Gated Communities - between Regulation and Exclusion@A Cross-National Comparative Analysis
 44 Shmueli Orit Iris Aravot2016 Abstracts Theses Thick City - A Phenomenoloical Research of the@Experienced Urban Space
 45 Golan Roni Danny Ben-Shahar2016 Abstracts Theses Three Essays on Real Estate Prices in an Imperfect@Market
 46 Shapira Yehotal Rachel Kallus2016 Abstracts  Non-Structural Knowledge and Practice: Architectural@Testimony in East Jerusalem
 47 Troupin David Yohay Carmel2015 Abstracts Theses Incorporating Dynamic Scenarios of Anthropogenic and@Natural Land Cover Change Processes into@Systematic Conservation Planning
 48 Warszawski Jacob Danny Ben-Shahar2015 Abstracts Theses Studies on Housing Affordability
 49 Modai-Snir Tal Pnina Plaut2015 Abstracts Theses Residential Mobility - Analysis of Intra-Metropolitan@Flows and Sorting Dynamics
 50 Elhyani Zvi Rivka Oxman

Robertmaurice Oxman
2015 Abstracts Theses Multi-Contextual Approaches to Architectural Archiving:@Knowledge Restoration for the Historiography of@Israeli Architecture
 51 Fainholtz Tzafrir Marina Pliouchtch

Iris Aravot
2015 Abstracts Theses Le Corbusier and the Zionist Movement
 52 Orni Nira Rachelle Alterman2014 Abstracts Theses The Time Factor in Land Expropriation@A Comparative Analysis of Israel and Victoria@(Australia)
 53 Erlich-Roginsky Hava Rachelle Alterman2014 Abstracts Theses Agreements between Local Government and Private Developers:@A Cross National Perspective
 54 Hazan Gilad Pnina Plaut2013 Abstracts Theses Evaluation of Sustainable Development in Plans:@Theory, Practice, Method
 55 Byran Eyal Issachar Gilad

Rivka Oxman
2013 Abstracts Theses Ergonomic Design Based on Operator's Efficiency of@Multitask Vehicles
 56 Israel Emil Amnon Frenkel2013 Abstracts Theses Social Justice and Equal Opportunities in an Era of Urban@Suburbanization
 57 Moran Mika Pnina Plaut2013 Abstracts Theses The Relationship between the Built Environment and Active@Living
 58 Mualam Nir Rachelle Alterman2012 Abstracts Theses Conflicts over Preservation of the Built Heritage@A Cross-National Comparative Analysis of the@Decisions of Planning Tribunals
 59 Broitman Dani Daniel Czamanski

Itzhak Benenson
2012 Abstracts Theses Dynamics of Polycentric Urban Structure
 60 Bendit Edward Amnon Frenkel2012 Abstracts Theses Housing Preferences and Residential Location Choice@of Knowledge Workers in the Tel-Aviv Metropolitan@Region
 61 Shachar Oryan Alona Nitzan-Shiftan

Rachel Sebba
2012 Abstracts Theses " A Circular World - A Right Angle World"@Modern Architectures and Urban Communities@at Hatzor Ha'Glilit 1950-1976
 62 Amoyal Einat Naomi Carmon2012 Abstracts Theses Social Capital in the Contexts of Urban Planning and@Immigrant Integration
 63 Salinger Eyal Daniel Shefer2011 Abstracts Theses The Economics of Conservation of Buildings with Cultural@Heritage Value: The White City Tel Aviv
 64 Barlach Yotam Daniel Shefer

Yoram Shiftan
2011 Abstracts Theses The Existence of Hedonic(Emotional) Preference in Choosing@Public Transit Modes
 65 Rosen-Kremer Osnat Iris Aravot2011 Abstracts Theses The RegionCity@Motion, Experience, Interpretation
 66 Kolodney Ziva Rachel Kallus2011 Abstracts Theses The Politics of the Landscape@Landscape Production in Transition between Mandate@and Sovereign Haifa
 67 Fershtman Dorit Alona Nitzan-Shiftan2011 Abstracts Theses The Making of an Architectural Canon@Mies Van Der Rohe in America
 68 Molin Elvira Naomi Carmon2010 Abstracts Theses Development of the Culture Strategies in Cities and their@Implications for Local Population
 69 Eilam Efrat Tamar Trop2010 Abstracts Theses Evaluation of Environmental Schools' Influence on their@Communities
 70 Bar-Eli Shoshana Gabriela Goldschmidt2010 Abstracts Theses Design Behavior Profiles: Similarities and Differences@in Design Students' Processes
 71 Behar David Michael Levin

Isaac Guedi Capeluto
2009 Abstracts Theses Light in the Museum of Art
 72 Ochoa Carlos Isaac Guedi Capeluto2009 Abstracts Theses Design of Intelligent Building Skins for Hot Climates
 73 Roth Rafael Daniel Czamanski

Lucien Ben-Guigui
2008 Abstracts Theses The Spatial Dynamics of High-Rise Buildings: The Case of@Tel-Aviv
 74 Cory Joseph Michael Levin2008 Abstracts Theses Attempts to Transform the Surrealist Dream into an@Architectural Reality
 75 Elias Wafa Tomer Toledo

Yoram Shiftan
2008 Abstracts Theses The Effect of Activity Patterns on Road Accidents:@Case Studies of Bypassed Towns
 76 Porat Idan Amnon Frenkel

Maxim Shoshany
2008 Abstracts Theses Spatiotemporal Polycentricity Analysis of Re-urbanization:@The Case Study of the Built Area in the City@of Tel Aviv
 77 Leck Eran Shlomo Bekhor

Daniel Gat
2008 Abstracts Theses Efficiency and Equity Impacts of Transportation@Improvements: The Case of Greater Beer-Sheva
 78 Carmon Dafna Rachelle Alterman2008 Abstracts Theses The Public's Right to be Heard in Planning Procedures: The@Case of Israel from a Cross-National Perspective
 79 Grobman Jacob Abraham Yezioro

Isaac Guedi Capeluto
2008 Abstracts Theses Building the Digital World - Architectural Design Methods@Based on the Use of Digital Tools -@Performance Based from Generation and@Optimization
 80 Shach-Pinsly Dalit Michael Burt

Dafna Fisher Gewirtzm
2007 Abstracts Theses The Development of a Model for Analyzing Visual Openness and@Visual Exposure in Residendential Clusters
 81 Rechtman Orly Shaul Amir2006 Abstracts  A Model for Visual Evaluation of Mediterranean Open@Landscapes in Israel
 82 Pearlmutter David Pedro Berliner

Edna Shaviv
2006 Abstracts  The Microclimatic Influences of Urban Surface Geometry:@A Physical Modeling Study in Hot-Arid Conditions
 83 Hananel Ravit Rachelle Alterman2006 Abstracts  Decision-Making in Israel's Land Council: Analysis of the@Ideological Changes in Israel's Public Land Policy
 84 Shashua-Bar Limor Milo-Emil Hoffman

Igal Tzamir
2005 Abstracts  Development of an Integrative Model for Evaluation of@Vegetation Effects on the Climate@of an Urban Space
 85 Nir Eyal Isaac Guedi Capeluto2005 Abstracts  Smart Cloud of Points as Digital Media and Tools for@Building Envelope Design
 86 Austerlitz Noam Iris Aravot

Aaron Ben-Ze'ev
2005 Abstracts  Emotions and Student-Instructor Relationship: Their@Educational Role in the Architectural Design@Studio
 87 Ziflinger Yulia Naomi Carmon2005 Abstracts  Promoting Social Justice through Urban Regeneration
 88 Hatuka Revital Rachel Kallus2005 Abstracts  Spatial Conflicts: Architecture and Everyday Life in@Tel Aviv of the 1990's
 89 Blumenfeld Efrat Daniel Czamanski

Lucien Ben-Guigui
2005 Abstracts  Dynamics of Urban Morphology in the Tel-Aviv Metropolitan@Area
 90 Klevitsky Ekaterina Gabriela Goldschmidt2004 Abstracts  Shifts in Architectural Graphic Representation in the@Postmodern Era
 91 Marinov Maria Daniel Czamanski

Lucien Ben-Guigui
2004 Abstracts  Spatial Dynamics of the Retail Sector in Israel
 92 Stav Tamy Rachelle Alterman2004 Abstracts  The Language of Planning: Conveying and Obscuring Messages@in Plans
 93 Bleiberg Tamar Edna Shaviv2004 Abstracts  A Model for Enhancing the Collaboration among the@Design Participants in the Process of Computer@Aided Collaborative Design
 94 Richter Liliane Gilbert Herbert (Deceased)2003 Abstracts  Different Patterns of the Adaptation as Architects, of Two@Jewish European Immigrants: Alexander Baerwald and@Benjamin Chaikin in Eretz Israel
 95 Korren Amram Michael Burt2003 Abstracts  Identical Dual Lattices and Subdivision of Space
 96 Mitrany Michal Arza Churchman2002 Abstracts  Subjective Housing Density and the Housing Context
 97 Trop Tamar Shaul Amir2002 Abstracts  Nature Conservation Policy in Israel:@Formation Process, Trends and Future Directions
 98 Alon Mozes Tal Shaul Amir2002 Abstracts  The Hebrew Vernacular Garden in the Land of Israel -@Text, Culture and Meaning
 99 Simonovich Javier Daniel Gat2002 Abstracts  The Role of Social Networking and Spatial Location in the@Success of High-Tech Firms
 100 Gabaren Yousef Naomi Carmon2002 Abstracts  Culturally Sustainable Housing.@Case Study: The City of Gaza
 101 Benchetrit Gilat Daniel Czamanski2001
 Housing Prices in Israel: The Causes and Affects
 102 Kleinmann Menachem Avraham Wachman (Deceased)2001
 Semiregular Polyhedra in Four Dimensions
 103 Lobovikov-Katz Anna Avraham Wachman (Deceased)

M. Turner
2001 Abstracts  The "Stone Regulation" and Stone Building Conservation in@Jerusalem@(The Role of Building Material - Stone -@in Urban Conservation)
 104 Shadar Hadas Robertmaurice Oxman2001
 The History of the Public Housing in the State of Israel@1948-1999: The Influence of the Ministry of@Housing on the Urban Development of@Beer-Sheva
 105 Karni Atalia Gilbert Herbert (Deceased)2001
 Parallels between Modern Architecture and its Concepts,@and Traditional Japanese Architecture and@its Concepts: European Architecture@between the World Wars
 106 Aviram Haim Daniel Shefer2001
 Evaluating the Impact of Urban Transportation Projects on@Land Values
 107 Buras Nir Haim Gilbert Herbert (Deceased)2000
 Josef Neufeld in Eretz Israel: Romanticism in Modernism
 108 Billig Miriam Arza Churchman2000
 Dwelling Proximity between Different Socio-Economic Groups@Following Urban Revitalization
 109 Hershcovich Arye Hubert Law-Yone2000
 The Influence of Interest Groups on the Plans for Population@Dispersal in Israel
 110 Hochman Ziva Daniel Czamanski1999
 Willingness to Pay for the Educational Program for Parents@""Parents Studying and Teaching"
 111 Fisher Gewir Dafna Igal Tzamir

Michael Burt
 A Method for Density Measurements in Dense@Urban Environments
 112 Shteinbok Arkady Giora Rosenhouse1999
 Simulation of Sound Fields in Urban Environment
 113 Michalak Yosiphia Giora Rosenhouse1999
 The Influence of Change in Hearing Ability through Age on@the Acoustic Component in Buildings@for the Elderly
 114 Bar-on David Rivka Oxman1999
 Representation of Building Technology Knowledge@in Computerized Libraries
 115 Cohen Mordehai Daniel Shefer1998
 Spatial Diffusion of Innovations in Agriculture@and Regional Development.@The Case of the Greenhouse Tomatoes in@Israel
 116 Maharshak Arie Daniel Czamanski1998
 Industrial Parks - Competitive Strategic Marketing
 117 Schwartz Hava Arie Peled (Deceased)

 Human Attachment Styles, Home Attachment and the Spatial@Configuration of the Desired Home
 118 Wertheim Irith Nitsa Movshovitz-Hada

Avraham Wachman (Deceased)

Yehudit Dori
 A Morphological Approach to the Study of Geometry,@as a Way to Improve Spatial Ability
 119 Soker Joseph Giora Rosenhouse1998
 A Conceptual and Practical Approach to Architectural-@Acoustic Design of Neighborhoods in Israel
 120 Casakin Hernan Gabriela Goldschmidt1998
 The Role of Analogy and Visual Displays@in Architectural Design
 121 Amir Eyal Arza Churchman

Avraham Wachman (Deceased)
 Room - Home: the Kibbutz Apartment -@Ideology and Planning
 122 Roziner Marina Gilbert Herbert (Deceased)1998
 The Conquest of the Architectural World:@The Spread of Le Corbusier's Mythology in Europe@between 1918-1939
 123 Segal Corina Giora Rosenhouse

Michael Burt
 Urban Environments on Floating Platforms in Protected@Water Zones and Open Sea
 124 Corren Nurit Rachelle Alterman1997
 Design Control Instruments: Their Legal Bases and@Consequences for Architectural Practice
 125 Ianco Vicki Rachel Sebba1997
 The Scale of Blocks as a Factor which Effects the@Environmental Representation of the Child
 126 Frenkel Amnon Daniel Shefer1997 Abstracts  Spatial Diffusion of Industrial Technological Innovation@and Regional Development
 127 Franklin Unkind Raquel Robertmaurice Oxman1997
 Hannes Meyer in Mexico (1939-1949)
 128 Tibi Ariel Elisha Tatsa (Deceased)

Michael Burt
1997 Abstracts  Mega Structures as a Stage of Urban Evolution
 129 Mosseri Avi Avraham Wachman (Deceased)1997
 Strategic Spatial Planning and National Strategy@in Israel
 130 Capeluto Isaac Edna Shaviv1996 Abstracts  Architecture and Environment:@Modeling a Sustainable Architecture
 131 Davidouici Ronit Arza Churchman1996 Abstracts  The Event and the Context - a Theoretical Approach to@Person-Environment-Planning
 132 Sofer Michal Rachelle Alterman1995 Abstracts  The Time Dimension in Statutory Planning in Israel
 133 Vranesky Ariela Rachelle Alterman1995 Abstracts  Conflict Management in Urban and Regional Planning: the@Applicability of Alternative Dispute Resolution@Approaches with Specific Reference to@National Highway Planning
 134 Sadan Elisheva Arza Churchman1994 Abstracts  Empowerment in the Context of Community Planning:@A Theoretical Development
 135 Engelhardt Livna Michael Burt

Oren Vilnay
1994 Abstracts  Sparse Plate Trusses - Morphological Approach and@Structural Analysis
 136 Misgav Ayala Shaul Amir1994 Abstracts  A Method for Evaluation of the Visual Characteristics of@Vegetation Groups in Israel
 137 Yezioro Abraham Edna Shaviv1994 Abstracts  Form and Performance in Intelligent CAAD Systems for@Early Stages in Solar Building Design
 138 Riklis Yuri Daniel Gat1993 Abstracts  Argumentative Bass of Conceptual Decisions in Architectural
 139 Raviv Noga Daniel Gat

Milo-Emil Hoffman
1993 Abstracts  Architectural Content in Climate-Conscious Design:@The Case of the 1970's and the 1980's in the Usa
 140 Fuchs Aharon-Ron Gilbert Herbert (Deceased)

David Best
1993 Abstracts  Austenst Barbe Harrison a British Architect in the Holy
 141 Taylor Thomas Daniel Czamanski1993 Abstracts  Spatial Aspects of Entrepreneurial Behaviour
 142 Gur Yehoyahin Gilbert Herbert (Deceased)

David Best
1993 Abstracts  Concepts of Public Housing in Israel (the Formative Years@1920-1948)
 143 Francis Mourice Michael Burt1993 Abstracts  Interactive Develoament of Structural-Morphological@Solutions for Space Trusses based on Infinite@Polyhedral Lattices (IPL)
 144 Bar-Am Shahal Liora Gilbert Herbert (Deceased)

Aharon Kashtan (Deceased)
1993 Abstracts  Constancy and Variability in the Evolution of Basilican Spac
 145 Kallus Rachel Hubert Law-Yone1992 Abstracts  The Idea of Neighborhood: a Study in Conceptual Dynamics
 146 Shmueli Deborah Daniel Shefer1992 Abstracts  Comparative Analysis of Travel Patterns of Men and Women
 147 Yom-Tov Tirza Avraham Wachman (Deceased)1991 Abstracts  Educational Buildings in the Kibutz Ideas and Physical Solut
 148 Zohar Ruth Edna Shaviv1990 Abstracts  Mathematical Model for Decision Making for Energetic Retrof
 149 Karni Eyal Michael Burt

Daniel Czamanski
1989 Abstracts  An Approach to Comparative Evaluation of Constroction
 150 Oxman Rivka Edna Shaviv1989 Abstracts  Expert Systems for Generation and Evaluation in Architectura
 151 Shrestha Shiva Daniel Shefer1988
 Measuring the Economic Impacts of Regional Iraigation Projec

151 abstract theses title found in the Department Architecture and Town Planning
Last updated on: Thursday ,May 28, 2020