|M.Sc Student||Abdelhadi Samya|
|Subject||Production of Biochar from Olive Mill Solid Waste for|
Removal of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic
Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Industrial
|Department||Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering||Supervisors||Professor Carlos Dosoretz|
|Dr. Hassan Azaiza|
|Full Thesis text - in Hebrew|
Olive mill solid waste (OMSW) is the fraction generated from olive oil extraction process. Converting OMSW to charcoal through pyrolysis and activating will be useful product as adsorbent removal of environmental contaminants as well as will contribute to minimizing solid waste generation. In the current work we tested OMSW obtained from two diﬀerent olive cultivars (Picual and Souri), from two production process (two-phase and three-phase), and pyrolyzed at two temperatures (350°C and 450°C) for biochar production for the removal of heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial wastewater.
The study included two parts, pyrolysis, and then activation. In each part, the adsorption capacity was compared between different types of biochar and compared to a commercial activated carbon (CAC). Calculation of the surface area was based on the Langmuir model and compared with the BET method. The presence of functional groups was also investigated using FTIR. Batch experiments were performed to test the adsorption capacity of biochar for HMs and PAHs from solutions . The results showed that biochar yield was 24-35%. The surface area ranged between 1.74-3.42 m2/g as compared to 1100 m2/g for CAC.
The produced biochar showed high removal capacity for HMs even better than CAC. The HMs removal capacity did not correlate with surface area. The removal capacity for the HMs depended on olive cultivar and processing type. The cellulose fraction of Picual of the two-phase pyrolysed at 3500C showed the best removal capacity for HMs compared to other OMSW types. However, more than 92% of the initial PAHs concentration was removed by CAC. The removal capacity of the Picual and Souri to PAHs did not exceed 20%.
FTIR analysis indicated that the most signiﬁcant absorption bands for the cellulose two-phase samples are peaks of (C-H) and (C-O). The physical activation of the biochar caused increase of the surface area of Picual and Souri two- and three phases in 288.2, 124.78, 101.07 and 50.5 folds, respectively. The removal capacity to HMs of activated biochar obtained from Picual and Souri two- and three-phases increased by 3.4 - 5.11 and, 2.17-2.93 folds, respectively. The removal capacity of the activated biochar to the PAHs using Picual two- phase increased by 11.48, 43.68 and 31.88 folds for Phenanthrene, Fluoranthene or Pyrene, respectively.
Concluding, the removal of HMs is mainly dependent on the cultivar type and the process used for oil extraction, where Picual two-phase is better than the three-phase and similar trend was found for Souri types. All produced biochar from the different OMSW types were better than the CAC for HMs removal.