|M.Sc Student||Bergman Bar|
|Subject||The Impact of Travel-Based Multitasking on Travelers'|
Utility, Value of Time and Transport Mode
|Department||Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering||Supervisor||Professor Yoram Shiftan|
|Full Thesis text - in Hebrew|
Daily travel is mainly treated as an activity carried out solely in order to participate in spatially separated activities. Therefore, it is treated as a disutility to be minimized. From early studies of time allocation onward, it has been acknowledged that the "productive" nature of travel could affect its utility. Travel time would become less "wasted" in transit or other transportation modes on which individuals may use travel time to conduct other activities. The phenomenon of doing more than one thing at a time while travelling in called "Travel-based multitasking". Relatively, little attention has been paid to this phenomenon. Only within the last decade, this phenomenon and the relationship between multitasking and the value of time (VOT) and its impact on mode choice, have started to be explored. The objective of this research is to investigate the impacts of multi-tasking while commuting on mode choice, travelers' utility of travel time, and their VOT. We also investigate the potential of automated vehicles (AV) to affect the VOT and mode choice.
We created a questionnaire which was disseminated among 324 Tel-Aviv-Haifa commuters during winter 2017. The questionnaire aimed to measure multitasking attitudes and behavior while commuting, together with general attitudes, mode-specific perceptions and standard socioeconomic traits. We first developed binary logic models for the decision to engage in each of 16 types of activities while traveling by each of the three different modes (drive alone, shared ride, and rail). We have used these estimated models to create new variables - the commuters' propensities to engage in activities while traveling on each mode. The effects of these propensities on mode choice are then quantified by estimating a mode choice model. We develop a stated preference multinomial logit (MNL) mode choice model that account for the impact of the ability to multitask while traveling on the utility of the three mentioned alternatives as well as the AV. In addition, we estimated Nested Logit (NL), Cross-Nested Logit (CNL) and panel effect Mixed Logit models.
The ability to multitask while traveling on a specific mode of transport significantly increases the utility of this mode. VOT is lower on modes that enable better multitasking. The propensity to multitask affect VOT - market segmentation the model by propensity to use laptop during travel show significantly lower VOT for commuters with a high propensity for using laptop. Estimation of the NL models resulted in a nesting structure that groups carpool and rail alternatives within a "passenger" nest. The estimation of the CNL model resulted in a cross-nesting structure showing that the carpool mode shared unobserved characteristics with both private and transit nests, with the “belonging” coefficient stronger for transit alternatives. The panel Mixed Logit model resulted in a standard deviation value that is greater than "1" for the AV constant (meaning high variation around this mode). In light that AV are still unfamiliar to travelers, this outcome is logical and expected.