טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentKolodiy Olga
SubjectTowards Zero Emission Residential Complexes in High
Density Neighborhood
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Isaac Guedi Capeluto
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract


One of the most significant factors influencing the impact of humans on the environment is population growth. In order to minimize the damage to urban open spaces, urbanization and urban densification should be encouraged. Proper planning of living space in crowded areas by intelligent use of existing natural resources will allow protecting open spaces for future generations and reducing the ecological footprint of new neighbourhoods.

The construction industry is responsible for a large amount of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide and therefore taking immediate measures may have environmental and economic benefits with long-term effects. To reduce the environmental negative effect generated by the construction industry, buildings must become energy producers instead of just energy consumers. Zero or nearly zero-emissions/energy building (ZEB) refers to a building that has a very high energy performance, such that the balance of energy needs should be covered by energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby .

In the early 2000s an urban renewal plan was developed in Israel. Within the framework of the plan, two main tracks for the promotion of municipal urbanization processes were proposed:

1. Urban Renewal (increased building rights)

2. Urban Redesign (clearance and construction)

The aim of this work is to test the feasibility and implications of designing a high-density zero or near zero-emissions residential complexes. The study is carried out by examination and comparison of various density design alternatives of an existing urban plot in the coastal climate zone of Israel.

At the first stage we checked the existing built-up plot condition and the Renewal condition, addition of one or two floors to each building

At the second stage we introduce new design alternatives according to approved densification program that will increase on plot residential units’ number by about 200% in comparison to the existing situation:

-          Approved - plot design as approved by District Committee

-          Proposed - redesign of approved building’s volumes to maximize electricity production potential by minimizing mutual shading and maximizing usable roof area.

According to the findings of the study, there is a connection between the urban density (represented by the number of housing units per plot area), the electricity consumption and the area required for the energy production. As the density increases, energy consumption grows as well as mutual shading of the buildings. Less areas will be exposed to direct sunlight, which will reduce available surfaces for the application of photovoltaics.

In all the design alternatives, which were introduced in this work, it is possible to produce at least 50% of the operational energy consumption of residential units within the boundaries of the buildings by photovoltaic panels installed on roofs and facades. In similar density conditions, "50% Energy" should be the initial target for urban development today, it can be improved in accordance to technology developments of reducing electricity consumption on the one hand, and energy production on the other.