טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentSaba Nicola
SubjectThe International Style and the Climate in Israel: Climatic
Performance of Residential Buildings in Tel-Aviv
from 1930's till the Establishment of
the State
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Dr. Yezioro Abraham
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

In the early 1930’s, Jewish architects travelled to Europe to research building styles returned to Israel, and many people also immigrated to Israel for ideological reasons or had to flee from their countries, mainly from Europe. The combination of these factors led to the construction of a large number of residential buildings in Tel Aviv in the International style. At that time, the leading modernist architects in the state discussed the subject of local climate and its influence on the design of the building. The climatic adaptation of these buildings was based purely on the architecture itself; since at that time there were no mechanical systems. Based on information from leading and influential architects from that period, environmental topics were a significant part of the architectural discourse and practice in the state, as well as around the world. Topics such as ventilation and shading were important issues in the debate, and solutions were proposed to address them. Sometimes they were based on research, sometimes on common sense, and occasionally on rules of thumb. Despite the efforts, these solutions have been never properly tested to establish if they are indeed fit for purpose. Lack of strict testing has been due to the absence of methods and tools to carry out some of these tests, especially regarding spatial tools. However, today we can assess the thermal performance of the building by using novel computer models, and presenting the results on the space itself through spatial maps. These maps help us to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between architecture and climatic performance.

In general, it can be seen that architects in the 1930s, in most cases, could produce residential units with very comfortable interior environments during the summer season. Nevertheless, the residential units were less comfortable during the winter season, which suited the architects' discourse, directed mainly at the hot season.

Structural elements play an important role and affect the way the unit performs. Units having the same orientation, but different treatments of their envelopes have indicated different comfort percentages. It can be concluded that architects who used structural elements to protect residential units from the sun did so in a very strict way. In many cases these considerations led to very high comfort performances during the summer, but it produced cold and uncomfortable environments in the winter.

The recommended orientation by most of the architects (east-west) describes relatively low comfort percentages relative to south-north units. This is especially the case in summer, whereas it indicated highest comfort rates among all the other orientations in the winter.

The southern side of all the units in the different orientations clearly contributed to an increase in the comfort percentage, especially in the winter, and this depended on the treatment of the envelope. By using openings and shading elements in various sizes and proportions, these on the one hand allowed good ventilation conditions, and on the other provided protection during the summer from the direct radiation but allowed radiant absorption during the winter.