|M.Sc Student||Yamit Lazimi|
|Subject||Defense, Foreign Affairs, Labor The Foundation of Upper|
Nazareth as a National and Confrontational Distric
|Department||Department of Architecture and Town Planning||Supervisors||Professor Nitzan-Shiftan Alona|
|Dr. Aharon Meirav|
|Full Thesis text - in Hebrew|
This study is an architectural journey to Upper Nazareth. This research started with a gap between my experience of the architectural reality of the city, and the habitual image of development towns as a uniform modernist landscape bespeaking a failed social experiment. My study binds the top down planning of Upper Nazareth with the particular developments in this town in order to argue for a different story of early modernism in Israel.
Upper Nazareth was built as a district city next to the Arab city of Nazareth. The presence of the Arab Other and the national desire to devise a formal architectural language vis-à-vis this historical city set the ground for planning the new town. The challenge encouraged planners to seek local alternative to the state’s uniform public housing. Archival research led me to anchor my search for the 'other modernism' of Upper Nazareth in the domains of three main ministries that were involved in the development of the city?the Ministries of Defense, of Foreign Affairs, and of Social Affairs and Employment.
Security is relevant when viewing the government's agenda to 'Judise Nazareth' by establishing a Jewish city in the heart of the Arab population. Upper Nazareth, both in its plan and location, was designed as a territorial and demographic reaction to its surroundings. It became a priority for resources and provided better conditions and job possibilities for the new residents.
Foreign Affairs comes into consideration when viewing the physical image of the new city as a symbolic answer to the ancient and sacred old Arab city. By taking inspiration from the old city, the planners tried to create an appropriate visual representation to the local landscape and adopted the building style of the neighboring Arabs.
Social Afairs and Employment comes into context with public housing. The proximity to an old Arab settlement system created a new administrative reality that changed the architectural process. In upper Nazareth, immigrants were building for immigrants from the first stage of planning to the building itself while creating an architecture fit to the needs and cultures of the new immigrants.
My review of the different governmental policies and of the ministries involved in the establishment of Upper Nazareth reveals a program that was new and did not fit the usual prototype of early modernist towns. By responding to the political demands of the government with their own professional knowledge, the planners of Upper Nazareth succeeded to develop a unique identity and architectural language. I demonstrate this language through morphological analysis of the innovative living and housing typologies of this town. This architectural expression is a product of mediating between the local architecture of the region, the experience of the immigrants of the new town, and the modernist convention of the time. The result imbued the latter with social and aesthetic values that present architectural precedents with which the planners of Upper Nazareth enriched Israeli architecture in the nineteen fifties and sixties.