טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentPrawer Noa
Subject"You want to Maximize Your financial Gain. What about Mine?"
Analysis of National Outline Plan No.38 as a
Planning Deal
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisors Dr. Meirav Aharon
Professor Pnina Plaut
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

This study examines the social conditions that influence home owners’ organizing ability in urban development projects initiatives, by analyzing how the National Master Plan for strengthening existing buildings against earthquakes (NOP 38) is implemented. In 2005, the government has approved  NOP 38. Besides readiness for earthquake situations, the programs allowed, as a side effect, solutions for urban renewal and development, and in some projects it even provided a solution for the issue of shielding. For this reason, a strong and broad development coalition has evolved around NOP 38 that included the State and municipalities as well as entrepreneurs and home owners. To this day, only 4% from the inventory of potential buildings was approved for strengthening under NOP 38 plan .   Efforts to promote projects under the NOP 38 focused on formalizing solutions in planning, economics, regulations, and bureaucracy of the process; their main purpose was to increase its economic profitability. The impact of the dynamics among home owners and the one between them and other partners in the process - was barely examined and did not receive much attention.

This study focused on individuals and the nature of their actions within the framework of the plan. It further examined home owners’ organizing abilities and action strategies they take against other partners- as main variables for executing plans under NOP 38. The study rested upon a combination between urban research that included social, economic and spatial aspects and the ethnography of homeowners’ organization for the benefit of executing projects under the NOP. The chosen field of the research was three projects under NOP 38 in the city of Tel Aviv-Jaffa, where the heterogeneity of the city allowed an examination of projects with diverse social-economic features.

Research findings teach us that the motivator logic behind NOP 38, strengthening existing buildings against earthquakes, is not an imperative common interest of homeowners, for which they are ready to unite. Thus, the basic logic behind the collaboration between homeowners and developers is mainly associated to the NOP being a “planning deal” - an ongoing negotiation which is mostly based on financial profit, in which the public interest is barely brought up. A “planning deal” is basically a deal with an economic feature, and it dictates actions in terms of competitiveness, interests, profits and conflict.

 In addition, research findings showed that in projects under NOP 38, homeowners are perceived as a group. However, my argument is that the fundamental differences that exist between homeowners make it difficult for them to get organized and work together. This study identified four factors that have an effect on the ability and the nature of homeowners’ organization in dealing with plans under the NOP 38: apartment perception, leadership, trust and groupthink. These factors are influenced by homeowners past history. In addition, the logic of the “planning deal” can also set into building issues, and at times, intensify the difficulty of homeowners’ organization. Thus, it further reduces the ability of projects under the NOP to be implemented.