טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentShiran Goldner Marom
SubjectCulture of Using Tower Cranes for Building Construction
DepartmentDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Supervisor Full Professor Shapira Aviad
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

For many years now, a large variety of tower cranes have been used on construction sites as the primary lifting equipment. The other common type of cranes is the mobile crane. It could be expected that under similar project conditions, depending on cost comparisons of each individual case, the equipment solution for each project would have been identical (i.e., tower or mobile crane). However, in the USA and in European countries the solutions are not always similar. Hence, it can be argued that a culture of the use of one crane type or another exists, a culture whose roots probably go beyond the rational boundary and whose influence seems stronger than feasibility analyses and simple cost evaluations.

The objective of the study is to characterize the culture of using tower cranes in order to generate insights that will assist in the process of selecting tower cranes as the primary lifting equipment of a project. The study focused on construction sites in Israel, as a worthy representative of the culture of using tower cranes, and in this respect, the results are not necessarily local in nature.

The methodology adopted in the study consisted of case studies that were mainly based on interviews. Ten projects were carefully selected according to predefined criteria. These criteria created a homogeneous population of projects through which it was possible to compare the culture of using tower cranes and the counter-culture of the use of mobile cranes.

The case studies revealed the different selection factors that lead to the equipment solution on site. These selection factors, which are ‘soft’ in nature, assisted in characterizing the culture of using tower cranes in Israel. The most influential selection factor detected is ‘site congestion’. This factor, which belongs to the ‘physical site conditions’ family of selection factors, also contains environmental and organizational considerations and influences a long list of decisions in the process of equipment planning.

Additional characteristics of the culture of using tower cranes that were examined included the professionals who were involved in the equipment planning process and the variety of plan formats that were issued during the project stages. The findings revealed that the project manager was the highest involved party in the equipment planning process throughout all project stages. During the prebid planning stage, the company's management and staff were the highest involved parties in equipment planning, but as the process progressed, the center of gravity shifted in favor of the site group lead by the project manager. The preconstruction planning stage is the stage where equipment planning reaches its peak and is characterized by the greatest number of highly involved parties and by the vast issuance of plans, the most notable being the various drawing formats (layouts, elevations, and details).