טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentPankratov Tatyana
SubjectResponsive Building Facades: De-centralized control over
dynamic cladding components
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Yasha Jacob Grobman
Full Thesis textFull thesis text - English Version


Abstract

The research proposes a new model of decentralized automatic control over kinetic cladding components for building facades, based on principles of parametric design and generative algorithm 3D modeling. The new model is compared to a centralized control system, in parameters of interior illumination intensity and light dispersion within a defined space.

Movement of cladding components in building facades is used to control the interior climate upon exposure to environmental conditions such as direct sunlight, noise and natural ventilation. Until recently, technology and cost constraints resulted in limited use of automated movement of facade cladding.

Given current technological progress, the use of kinetic elements in building design has become increasingly common. The majority of the kinetic cladding systems in use today is controlled by a centralized control system. The centralized operation does not allow the system to distinguish between the components with regard to difference in exposure to the environmental conditions or performance requirements related to their location within the façade. Introduction of parametric design tools for architectural design combined with advent of inexpensive sensor/actuator microcontrollers, make it possible to explore ways to overcome this limitation.


The research proposes a model of decentralized control over cladding components, in order to make each component an independent unit capable of self-evaluation and individual adaptation, as well as mutual influence on the neighboring components.



The research included the following stages:

The first stage concentrated on a study of operation methods for kinetic building facades and establishment of the most suitable method for decentralized operation of the kinetic cladding components that would then be used in the research.


The next stage of the research proposed a model of self-organization behavior of the cladding components that allowed various degrees of independent activation of the façade system. The operational model control method proposed in this research is based on the qualities of parametric and generative algorithm 3d modeling software. The kinetic adaptation of the cladding components is carried out by small scale microcontrollers that fulfill the role of an absorption/actuation device.

The concluding stage of the research was a comparison between the two types of operation principles that was performed through a series of experiments performed on a multiple component physical prototype and a digital model. These demonstrated the advantages of the decentralized operation for a building cladding system composed of multiple kinetic components. The decentralized operation of the façade produced better light distribution and light measurement values that were closer to the preset desired illumination values in comparison to the centralized operation.


The results of this research suggest that incorporation of the decentralized control system in architectural projects may contribute to a better and more accurate control of natural light. Hence, it will provide a better solution for the inhabitants needs and decrease the use of electrical energy for illumination. The results also imply that similar control could be applied to different climatic parameters such as temperature or ventilation; further research is needed to investigate this potential.