טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentAviv Moran
SubjectGaps in Spatial Capital and Life Chances between
Houseolds in Haifa Neighborhoods
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Emeritus Amnon Frenkel
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

Spatial equality has become an integral part of the urban planning domain. It is expressed in the spatial distribution of economic and monetary resources over territory, as well as in the distribution of environmental, cultural and social assets.

The present study examines the relationship between the allocation of goods and the distribution of capital assets over space, and the opportunities this allocation and distribution create for the household.

In order to examine a complex social phenomenon such as spatial inequality, this study bases itself on the combination of two theories: the theory of capital assets (Bourdieu, 2001) and the capabilities and functionings approach (Sen, 1992).  The attempt to link these two theories, allowed us to evaluate the effect of the habitual background and of the accumulation of capital by an individual have on his exposure to life-chances.

In order to measure the accumulation of capital assets, a field survey via household interviews using a structured questionnaire specifically developed for this purpose was carried out. The survey was conducted in three neighborhoods in the city of Haifa. Data on the relevant capital assets was collected and examined at a neighborhood level: social capital, cultural capital, and economic capital. In addition, the living environment was analyzed, in an attempt to better understand the relationship between the different characteristics and opportunities for individual residents living in it and their interactions.

Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) was employed on a set of variables derived from the literature and collected through a field survey that represented the concepts of social space and Capabilities and Functionings Approach defining life-chances. It enabled grouping the variables of each capital form and of selected life-chances into major concepts.  The results were also used to examine the spatial variation among the city's neighborhoods.

To examine the effect of capital assets, living environment and habitus for the life- chances weighted variable, regression analysis was conducted. The findings brought to light a variety of influences on life-chances, those of various combinations of the different capital as well as of the residential physical environment and habitus. The strong positive relationship between the living environment  and the social space (capital assets and habitus), shows that the individual residing in an adequate living environment is exposed to more life-chances . The analysis shows that the impact of economic capital and institutional cultural capital, alongside geographical location on life chances, are stronger than the household's habitus background.

 The ability to use different forms of capital in order to build capabilities that can be translated into life-chances does not necessarily rely on economic capital. Thus, household heads who enjoy a high level of different capital forms may benefit from exposure to similar life-chances as reflected in their functionings in the field of employment and academic training.

As stated, these findings point to a variety of possible policies in the absence of economic capital in a particular residential area, which could enhance, to a certain degree, tools for development and investment in the space through means of local cultural and social assets in addition to the environmental ones.