טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentShemer Neta
SubjectPlanning Patterns of the Kibbutz in Renewal
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Pnina Plaut
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

In the second half of the 1980s, following a social and financial crisis, many kibbutzim were transformed from models of a socialist society, based upon egalitarian and sharing principles in all areas of life, into a social structure of differential wages and budgetary privatization. Because of these changes, a new stream of "kibbutzim in renewal" was formed. These changes in the values and the social structure produced the interesting changes in the planning and the spatial structure of the kibbutz.


This paper is divided into two parts: The first characterizes the growth and development forms that currently exist in the kibbutzim.  A survey was conducted across all kibbutzim, in which 187 kibbutzim took part and responded to the questionnaire.  The information was obtained by means of a survey questionnaire and from secondary sources - construction plans, sketches and regulations, and from the records of the cooperative associations.  A thematic analysis was conducted of all the information obtained, which resulted in the characterization of the growth and development patterns.  In the second section an in-depth study is presented that looks into the social process that the kibbutz has undergone, as it morphs into the kibbutz in renewal, and the planning processes that follow.


We will examine four kibbutzim is detail, each representing a different growth patterns as characterized in the first part of the study. The information in this section is based upon interviews conducted with members and individuals in various positions that participate in the planning processes in the kibbutzim, as well as protocol analyses and development plans.


The findings of the survey indicate that, among the renewing kibbutzim, the social cohesion in some is greater and they preserve social values and concepts that were characteristic of the collective kibbutz.  These are also reflected in the plans that preserve the principles of development of the collective space.


On the other hand, there are renewing kibbutzim that are socially and conceptually weakened considerably, as manifested in the lack of kibbutz members' involvement in plans based on the principles that echo individualistic values.