|M.Sc Student||Roee Ophir|
|Subject||Evaluation of "Integreted Street" as a Mean for Better|
Integration among Road Users
|Department||Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering||Supervisor||Professor Mahalel David|
|Full Thesis text - in Hebrew|
Urban streets have always been the lifeline of cities for their activity and development. Originally, a city street was known as a space for encounters and spontaneous movement of many pedestrians and few cars. However, with the expansion of cities and the increasing use of private vehicles, street shape has been overly redesigned. Traffic arrangements started to appear, including separation between vehicles and pedestrians (roads and pavements) as well as assigning an increasingly large portion of the street's area to vehicles' mobility. The decision to give preference to vehicles eventually resulted in depreciation of the urban street’s value. In reaction to this trend, a number of planning movements were established in the 1960s. One of the most prominent movements was the Integrated Street (Woonerf), which founded in Holland and later on expanded to other countries as well as a wide range of urban streets. Principles of an Integrated Street contain two main components: 1. Whole street space to be shared equally between users. 2. Traffic Calming (e.g. speed restriction, tortuous route, granite stone etc.). Today, in many developed countries, there is a consensus about the need for affirmative action in street planning. Traffic's volume or speed are no longer the exclusive planning criteria; conditions like pedestrian volume and environmental capacity are also taken into account in the planning process. Integrated Streets express this principle of finding the delicate balance between road users; sometimes this comes at the expense of cars, depending on the street's role in the urban roads system. This study presents a total account of worldwide data about Integrated Streets. We’ve examined a large variety of schemes on the axis of different levels of sharing. Some of the schemes present full integration between street users without separated zones (road and sidewalk). In other schemes the traditional segregation is kept, but improvements were introduced in favor of pedestrians’ movement. The mean theme is to examine whether and how and Integrated Street's design features introduce a better balance between the different needs of the various users: traffic volume and speed vs. freely and safely movement of pedestrians.