טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentErez Sagit
SubjectEnvirinmental Aspects of Olive Mill Waste in Israel:
Status Study
DepartmentDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Supervisors Professor Emeritus Michal Green
Dr. Isam Sabbah
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

The Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) is a dark liquid, with distinct odor. The OMW contain organic compounds, minerals and problematic substances, such as phenol compounds, tannins, and fats. OMW can be handled technologically, but in general is not practically or economically. In this research we reviewed the different olive oil waste treatment methods emphasizing the methods applied in Israel. The most common and studied method for OMW treatment in Israel is spreading the wastewater in orchards and rural paths as fertilizers .The spreading rate may affect the potential risk of the environment; therefore controlled spreading of 5 m3/dunam/year is required. Another feasible solutions accumulating the OMW at a sealed reservoir and slowly releases them to the local  or nearby wastewater treatment facility all year long or at rate that not negatively affect the different processes, where the dilution with the sanitarian sewage preventing its collapse. An additional solution applies in Israel is pre-treating the OMW by oxidation ponds that used to serve as the local treatment facility. These extensive ponds can handle such sewage load without collapsing, and after then can be discharged into domestic wastewater treatment facilities. Composting is another safe method, especially for the solid waste. It is an aerobic biodegradation process that produces stable and non-toxic materials which can be used in agriculture land. OMW can create high-quality compost, which reduces the need in fertilizing. A future high potential solution for treating the OMW is anaerobic biodegradation. A byproduct of the process is the methane production which is an added value in producing renewed energy. Some of the limitation in these two processes is the lack of nitrogen concentrations and low pH levels. It was found that a combination of OMW with additional agricultural waste is a good and effective solution.

In this research we focused, also, in the information collection methodology necessary for establishing layers at the GIS system. The data collection was performed using questionnaires for target groups. The questionnaires assembly was performed while writing the literature survey and figuring what are the required parameters and what are the target groups we should approach to build the appropriate tool for proper olive mill waste management. Questions such as what is the best treatment to a certain olive mill or what it the most adequate treatment for a new olive mill will be answered using this tool.