טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentYardena Etgar
SubjectTel-Aviv's Balconies, a Conservation Method Case Study
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisors Ms. Wasserman Irena
Professor Szmuk Nitza
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

The influx of immigrants in the early days of Jewish settlement in the Land of Israel led to the need for rapid residential construction. Apartment buildings constructed of reinforced concrete and blocks provided a fast and convenient solution to these residential needs. Between 1917 and 1930, architects who had studied in Europe immigrated to Israel, bringing with them a new style of construction and new construction technologies.

The balcony motif developed over the years, and the climatic conditions prevailing in the country, led the architects to seek a solution to the heat and ventilation problems that affected planning. The Tel Aviv balcony constitutes a prominent element in the urban landscape, linking the home and the street. For the most part, balconies reflected one of the three principal architectural styles:  Eclectic, Art Deco, and International.

Over the years, many buildings were leased to businesses and, since balconies served no function for businesses, they became a neglected, unused element. 

Once we understand the historical importance of the balcony, we realize the significance of developing a methodology for the conservation of the modern architectural heritage of the 20th century in general, and of the balcony in particular.

Typical Issues in Reinforced Concrete

  • Corrosion
  • The effect of defective planning on the emergence of building faults
  • Environmental effects
  • Structural damage

The study examines balconies via two principal topics. The first is classifying balconies according to their historical aspect and construction typologies, and the second is identifying typical problems and their causes. 

Types of balconies: The paper begins with an examination of the various building technologies, materials, and styles, the static design and wall-mounting method, special construction details: railings, aprons, drainage, the effect of exposures, the effect of shading on building façades, the effect of concentration of pollutants and the distance from the sea.

For the purpose of the engineering study, a total of 14 balconies were selected, in order to study, interpret, analyze, and draw conclusions.

After collection and documents of the data and signs of wear, a failure table was created for each balcony.

Finally, a summative failure table was prepared, with each balcony being given a general failure score based on its individual table.  

Based on the results, conclusions were drawn regarding the effect of the aforementioned factors on the wear processes, and recommendations for the treatment of the balconies were written.