|M.Sc Student||Bat-Hen Nahmias-Biran|
|Subject||Equity Aspects in Transportation Projects: Case Study of|
Transit Fare Change in Haifa
|Department||Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering||Supervisors||Full Professor Shiftan Yoram|
|Mr. Nir Shrabi|
|Full Thesis text|
This paper analyzes the equity effects of fare integration by evaluating its impacts on different groups of riders using a case study of the city of Haifa in Israel. The new integrated fare policy changed the historically complex per boarding fare system to a simple five zone fare system with free transfers, reducing fare to many passengers who need to make a transfer to complete their trip. To determine whether the fare policy differentially affected subsets of riders, it was decided to analyze both vertical and horizontal equity perspectives. Fare box data and on-board survey data provided profiles of rider characteristics. The vertical equity is tested using descriptive statistics tools analyzing the distribution of fare change among various groups of the population, and the horizontal equity is tested numerically using the Lorenz curve and the Gini Index. While the Gini index showed that the fare change was not equally distributed, the reform did help achieve a more equity fare system by improving service for passengers who need to transfer, and, following the reform, can do so without needing to pay more. The new reform also improves travel options for non-drivers and encourages more people to travel by bus, and bus users to use them more often. Furthermore, this policy favors economically and socially disadvantaged groups by allowing low socio-economic households, unemployed, retired and uneducated passengers to ride at a lower cost, and therefore, compensates for overall inequities. The new integrated fare policy implemented in Haifa is benefiting those who are worse off economically and therefore progressive by definition (Rawls J. , 1971).