|M.Sc Student||Rotstein Anat|
|Subject||A Longitudinal Study of Immigrants' Employment Status:|
Effect of Cultural attitudes and Efficacy
|Department||Department of Industrial Engineering and Management||Supervisor||Professor Emeritus Miriam Erez|
|Full Thesis text|
The present study aimed to identify the personal and situational characteristics that influence the employment status of new Russian immigrants in Israel. In particular, we examined two lines of predictors- efficacy perceptions, including Core Self Evaluation (CSE) and Means Efficacy and Cultural Attitudes, including Acculturation Strategies and Cultural Identities.
CSE represents the fundamental assessments that people make about their worthiness, competence, and capabilities. Means Efficacy is one's subjective assessment of the adequacy of the tools available for accomplishing a task. While the focus of CSE is internal, the focus of Means Efficacy is external. In the past, both CSE and Means Efficacy were found related to important work criteria.
Three types of cultural identities were examined: Ethnic identity, national identity and global identity, as well as four strategies of acculturation: integration, separation, assimilation and marginalization. Although ample cultural research was conducted on work outcome of immigrants, employment status has rarely been explored.
The research's immigrant population allowed us to also test for CSE's effects on immigrants' adaptation to the host culture.
Participants in this study were 227 immigrants in training programs aimed to help their integration into the job market in Israel. Their employment status was assessed during and after their participation in the training program. Specifically, all participants in the training program were approached two months after graduation from the program and 197 of them were identified and interviewed.
The data were analyzed using ANOVAs and predictions of employment status involved logistic and linear regression models. The main findings suggest that only efficacy perceptions influences improvement of employment status: both through main effects and combined effects. The interactive effect suggests that when immigrants score low on CSE, their Means Efficacy score is unrelated to status increase and when they score high on CSE, their Means Efficacy score determines to what extent their employment status is likely to increase through a positive linear relation. Cultural attitudes did not predict increased employment status through main effects although immigrants who were employed during training were more integrative than those who were unemployed. Cultural attitudes were interrelated and associated with CSE.
We propose that these efficacy perceptions are related to the specific objective work outcomes while the cultural attitudes may be more strongly related to general adaptation in the new culture. Implications, limitations and future research are discussed.