|Ph.D Student||Akashi Muhammad|
|Subject||X-Ray Emission from Colliding Winds in Planetary Nebulae|
|Department||Department of Physics||Supervisors||Professor Soker Noam|
|Professor Behar Ehud|
|Full Thesis text|
We conduct numerical simulations of axisymmetrical jets expanding into a spherical AGB slow wind. The three-dimensional flow is simulated with an axially symmetric numerical code. We concentrate on jets that are active for a relatively short time. Our results strengthen other studies that show that jets can account for many morphological features observed in planetary nebulae (PNs). Our main results are as follows. (1) With a single jet's launching episode we can reproduce a lobe structure having a `front-lobe', i.e., a small bulge on the front of the main lobe, such as that in the PN Mz 3. (2) In some runs dense clumps are formed along the symmetry axis, such as those observed in the pre-PN M1-92. (3) The mass loss history of the slow wind has a profound influence on the PN structure. (4) A dense expanding torus (ring; disk) is formed in most of our runs. The torus is formed from the inflated lobes, and not from a separate equatorial mass loss episode. (5) The torus and lobes are formed at the same time and from the same mass loss rate episode. However, when the slow wind density is steep enough, the ratio of the distance divided by the radial velocity is larger for regions closer to the equatorial plane than for regions closer to the symmetry axis. (6) With the short jet-active phase a linear relation between distance and expansion velocity is obtained in many cases. (7) Regions at the front of the lobe are moving sufficiently fast to excite some visible emission lines.
We also calculate the X-ray emission from both constant and time-evolving shocked fast winds blown by the central stars of PNs and compare our calculations with observations. Using spherically symmetric numerical simulations with radiative cooling, we calculate the flow structure and the X-ray temperature and luminosity of the hot bubble formed by the shocked fast wind. We find that a constant fast wind gives results that are very close to those obtained from the self-similar solution. We show that in order for a fast shocked wind to explain the observed X-ray properties of PNe, rapid evolution of the wind is essential. More specifically, the mass-loss rate of the fast wind should be high early on when the speed is 300-700 km/s, and then it needs to drop drastically by the time the PN age reaches 1000 yr. This implies that the central star has a very short pre-PN (post-asymptotic giant branch) phase.