טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentHalon Sharona
SubjectEnforcement Effects on Road Safety
DepartmentDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Supervisor Professor Tomer Toledo
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

This paper deals with the effect of police enforcement on road safety by looking at the effect of enforcement on accident rate and on compliance with traffic regulations. The paper consists of a literature survey of studies on enforcement campaigns and a statistical analysis of speeding enforcement studies in particular.

 Types of enforcement covered by the literature survey include: speed limits, red lights, seat belt use and drinking and driving. The objective of the literature survey is to provide a qualitative and quantitative comparison between the studies for each of the enforcement types, in reference to their effect on accident rates, their effect on violations of traffic rules and the “halo” effect.  

The statistical analysis deals with enforcement characteristics and their effect on various safety outcomes. The enforcement characteristics examined included: number of cameras in use, type of cameras, size of the area covered, type of roads, overt or covert enforcement means and advertisement of the enforcement campaign in the media. The objective of this part of the paper was to find a relationship between the enforcement characteristics and the variability in the accident rate and changes in travel speed.

The conclusions of this paper are:

A.          Maximum improvement of road safety can be done by having a global policy that combines massive police enforcement with an advertising campaign in the media to keep the issue in the forefront of public awareness (requires significant economic resources).

B.           Improving safety with a fixed budget, must be done by using certain enforcement characteristics that will gain the best results as follows:

-          Drinking and driving enforcement must be located on main routes as well as on alternative rotes to prevent "run-off" of the drinking drivers from the enforced roads to the alternative roads, and must be accompanied with public education activities.

-          Results of red-light enforcement cameras must take into consideration both rear-end crashes and right angle injury crashes.

-          To maximally reduce the number of accidents and to have minimal violations of the speed limit speed enforcement should take place on non-urban roads, with automatic enforcement that includes multiple fixed cameras and advertisement of the campaign in the media. For reducing the extent of extreme speeding, a long term enforcement plan should be held. For reducing the amount of speeding beyond the limit, the enforcement should be spread over as many sites as possible.