טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentSabo Naama
SubjectEvaluation of Washing Materials on Kerosene Contaminated
Soils
DepartmentDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Supervisor Professor Emeritus Noah Galil (Deceased)
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

Kerosene is a petrochemical distillate, which includes mostly alkanes with 9-16 carbon atoms. Kerosene is a major component of aviation fuels.

Soil washing can efficiently remediate soils contaminated by petroleum products. The process uses, in some cases, chemical and physical extractions, followed by separation techniques for removal of widespread organic, inorganic and radioactive pollutants from contaminated soils. The result of soil washing is the separation of the pollutants from the soil, and reduction in the volume of contaminated soil to be disposed or treated further.

The use of surfactants can enhance the mobility of hydrophobic contaminants from soil to the washing fluid.

The objective of this research is to examine the soil washing technique for the remediation of kerosene contaminated soils, by examining different washing liquids (detergent and organic solvent - limonene), examining the influence of soil type on the washing effectiveness (grumosol versus red loam), and examining the capability of biological treatment of the washing leaches (which contain kerosene).

In the experimental work, kerosene contaminated soil has been washed with tap water, cationic detergent and limonene. The soil has been separated from the washing liquid, and has been analyzed for kerosene concentration.

Results and Conclusions

·         The better the liquid phase is separated from the soil, the better is the removal of the kerosene.

·         Adding the tested cationic detergent or adding the limonene has not improved the kerosene removal from the contaminated soil compared with tap water. In part of the experimental work, the highest kerosene removal percentage was achieved by washing the soil with tap water only.

·         Red loam, which contains less clay and organic matter, and its structure contains less micropores, absorbs the kerosene less than does grumosol, and therefore the removal percentage are consistently higher in red loam.

·         In this experimental work, the washing of the kerosene is based on transport mechanism on macropores rage, and not on kerosene dissolving mechanism in the washing liquid.

·         While second washing increases the kerosene removal percentage, third washing does not necessarily increases the removal percentage.

·         In the performed experimental work, second washing was needed to change soil destination from hazardous waste landfill to domestic waste landfill. Nevertheless, even after the third washing, the soil was not clean and needed to be sent to domestic waste landfill.

·         The leach which contains tap water and kerosene is medially biodegradable.