טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentCarmely Ehud
SubjectEnvironmental NGO's in Israel and Their Influence on the
Planning System over Time
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Emeritus Rachelle Alterman
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

The fundamental changes in world environmental thought alongside radical changes in the methods applied by opposing parties have far reaching consequences. One of these changes is in the relationship evolution between institutional planning systems and non-governmental environmental organizations. This change has not yet been fully grasped by the various stakeholders. This work will review the history of the conflict and the various events that have lead to this change in Israel and worldwide. It will attempt to define the current relationship between environmental organizations and governments planning institutions and the influence environmental bodies have on the planning system.

The work is comprised of two principle parts:

Part I provides a literary survey of civilian society and its organizations in Israel and the development of environmental issues and thought in Israel and around the world.

Part II presents three case studies from different periods in the history of environmental organizations involvement with planning issues in Israel.

  • The first deals with the conflict surrounding the Teffen-Carmiel freeway "Mitlol Zurim" during the 80's. This road, paved in 1992, followed a conflict between the planning authorities and environmentalists brandishing the flag of nature preservation. This conflict lasted several years during which the road plan underwent substantial changes.

§ The second case deals with the Cross Israel Highway, known as Highway 6, the first toll road in Israel. It is one of the largest and most complex infrastructural projects ever undertaken in Israel, comprising a variety of planning, social and financial issues. This project concentrated one of the largest environmental conflicts known to the country .

  • The third case study deals with the Safdi project and the proposed expansion westward of Jerusalem municipal jurisdiction. Its objective was to reinforce the city of Jerusalem by building new residential neighborhoods. 

The questions asked and answered in this work are:

·      Are there any common denominators to the symbiotic process between environmental bodies and planning institutions in Israel with similar processes that occur in advanced western countries?

·      Can environmental conflicts in Israel be placed along a timeline regarding the nature of decisions taken? Can trends and developments thereby be identified in the nature of relationships between environmental bodies and planning institutions in Israel?