|M.Sc Student||Gomme-Lahav Maya|
|Subject||The Hidden Practices that Maintain the Inequalities between|
the Genders in the "New" Kibbutz - a Case Study
|Department||Department of Industrial Engineering and Management||Supervisor||Dr. Yuval Yonnay|
|Full Thesis text - in Hebrew|
The Kibbutz represents the dichotomy between the spirit of democracy and equality, as against capitalism and the struggle for personal achievement. Women on the Kibbutz do not depend on their male spouses for their social and economic status. These values should allow the development of social conditions necessary for the creation of equality between genders. Yet, despite the considerable increase of work opportunities, inequalities between the genders grew.
Over the last few years the Kibbutz has been undergoing processes typical of the capitalist economy, the new priorities being efficiency, reorganization, privatization, private ownership and differential income. In this new economic order, the kibbutz movement has retained a few characteristic practices discriminating women's work .
A survey of salaries in the kibbutzim, performed in 2004, found that the salaries of males were in average higher by 27% than salaries of females holding identical occupations. This study attempts to explore the means in which salary-gaps between genders were created in the “new” kibbutz. The purpose of this study is to reveal the hidden practices employed to retain the gender based discrimination between salaries in the workplace. For this purpose we employed a methodological approach based on a case study. The research method was triangulation. The statistical data analysis revealed a salary gap, from which male manager's benefit. The gap was found in the service sector as well as in the production sector.
The analysis of the in-depth interviews indicates at six principal practices preserving the inequality in the reorganized Kibbutz. The first practice to emerge is the use of situations of "economic crisis" and "emergency" to justify actions expressing components of inequality and of unfair distribution of resources. The second practice identified was the process to arrange and define the relationship between the economic system and the community. The third practice employed was the occupation cost evaluation itself. It made gender discrimination legitimate under the pretext of objectivity and equity. The fourth practice identified was different steps for economic recovery in the service sector as opposed to the production sector. The fifth pattern perceives the family as an economic unit in which women's work is taken for granted as an inherent task of no economic value. The sixth and last practice relates to the scientific discourse, of managers employing economic terminology, such as efficiency, rationality, equity etc. Language makes all the above describes practices legitimate in the public - social Kibbutz discourse.