טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentGoldin Maxim
SubjectLean Construction Management of High-Rise Apartment
Buildings with Late Change Orders
DepartmentDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Supervisor Professor Rafael Sacks
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

In the past, apartment clients had little option but to accept standard apartments. Today, most home-owners wish to customize their apartments. Construction companies compete by providing flexibility in the interior planning of apartments. However, most companies have client-service and construction management approaches that provide client service appropriate for the “old” market, i.e. for building standard apartments. The goal of this research was to analyze the situation using lean thinking, and to develop an improved construction management model better suited to treating client-initiated changes.


A preliminary study revealed many disparities between the existing construction management methods and clients needs, with significant waste in the process. The main conflict is between the random sequences of apartment sales and receipt of clients’ design decisions on the one hand, and the sequence of finishing works scheduled in the apartments on the other. The works are scheduled using the push principle, with the goal of achieving shortest project duration. However, such schedules are based on the mistaken assumption that information flow is under project management control. In reality, project management depends on the information flow, which is random.


The main principle of the proposed solution is “pull” flow control of the interior finishing works. The finishing works of each apartment are to be commenced only once site management can establish that all of the works can be executed without break. The key to achieving this is consolidation of the clients’ decisions about changes. Clients’ decisions “pull” the start of work in their apartments.


An important component of pull scheduling is a complete separation between a) structure works and finishing works in public areas, and b) interior finishing works in the apartments. An additional goal is to reduce the number of interfaces (handovers) between different teams, because they require time and management effort.


The expected results of pull scheduling are: reduction of changes performed after initial construction, smooth flow of finishing works, shortened cycle times, reduced management inputs, improved quality, improved cash flow for the contractor, postponement of design decisions for unsold apartments, and more.


The benefits measured in a pilot project included a reduced number of change versions, reduced management effort, and elimination of the instability typically inherent in luxury projects. A key conclusion of the research was that lean construction principles provide a sound basis for examining existing management processes in construction, and a strong foundation for development of improved management practices.