|M.Sc Student||Zaks Ofer|
|Subject||The Relationship between Emotional Characteristic, Period|
of Service, Education, Gender and Performance
Levels at the Workplace
|Department||Department of Industrial Engineering and Management||Supervisor||Dr. Rita Aloni|
An organization member performs optimally when between his job's emotional requirements and characteristics, the organizational characteristics and his own emotional pattern are all congruent (Kristof 1996).
Individual optimal performance and functioning have an effect on the organization's business outcomes. Over the last decade, Daniel Goldman and his associates have led an intensive research program attempting to investigate the role played by emotions and emotional awareness and their effects on job performance.
In a recent study, Buduan (2005) confirmed that two affective variables - optimism and pessimism - are distinct and independent personality traits. Her findings also show that the relationship between the optimism score and job performance is negative and weak . The same relationship was found between the pessimism score and job performance.
The present study focuses on the impact of optimism and pessimism on job performance and explores the effects of three intermediate variables - tenure, education and gender - on the hypothesized relationship.
Our findings are based on a field study of 473 employees. Three types of data were assessed:
· Data on job performance -the dependent variable.
· Data on the personality tendencies optimism and pessimism - the independent variables.
· Demographic data - tenure, education and gender - the intermediate variables.
Our findings show that adding gender to the model contributed modestly but significantly to the results. The effect of gender on performance level was greater among men than among women.
As for tenure, we found that adding this variable to the model did not contribute to the effect of optimism/pessimism. However, when we defined distinct tenure levels, we found that optimism and pessimism had a greater effect on performance among the more recently employed than the more veteran employees.
Finally, no significant relationship was found between education and job performance.
We also investigated additional, specific hypotheses regarding differences in the average performance level between groups of optimistic and pessimistic employees and on two levels of the intermediate variables tenure and education. Our findings showed no significant difference in the mean evaluation assessments. We also found no significant difference when comparing the performance level of optimistic men versus women, on the one hand, and pessimistic men versus women, on the other.
We then compared the job performance scores of four types of employees with different attitudes and worldviews. We found an "O/P type" effect on performance.
Finally, we discuss the study's contribution, limitations, and theoretical and practical implications.