|M.Sc Thesis||Department of Architecture and Town Planning|
|Supervisor:||Dr. Lifshitz Yair|
|Full Thesis text|
The operator's body dimensions are crucial variables affecting the efficiency of the system in matters of force application. Therefore, the configuration of hand tools must refer to the hand size of the user as an anthropometric fit standard.
A distinct aspect of ancient hand tools' design is its craft to fit individually for each user- an important ergonomic issue that expired when mass production occurred.
The current research designed to function as a theoretical basis; it reviews, record and analyze the decadence of anthropometric fit as associated with the industrial gradual development. Furthermore, it conducts a distinction between crafted-customized and mass produced hand tools in matters of anthropometric fit and variability considerations.
The research as a cross historical comparison samples hand tools of sequential periods of ancient and modern times over more than 6,500 years from Chalcolithic (4500 B.C.) up to contemporary. The research intent to analyze the sample of handles by identifying ranges of ratios between handle length and cubit length, or palm breadth. We expect that as much as the ranges of ratios are varied and wider, the associated anthropometric fit and variability considerations are in wider application and use.
The resulted distribution of ratios between hand measurements and handle length along time from Chalcolithic up to contemporary, presents a well noticeable and significant decrease of std. deviation which imply of variance decrease. Moreover, the IQR gradually declines from Chalcolithic up to contemporary; as a depict of the 50% of the middle cases of the distribution, the IQR enable to disregard the edge values and present a distinct view of the general tendency of transition toward standardization along the time periods.
The primary finding of the current research emphasizes the strong affect and association between evolvement of social organization, urbanism, centralization of production, industrialization, proficiency, production for export and the gradual regression of anthropometric fit, due to neglecting this principle for the sake of productivity.
The mass production engaged by the industrial revolution introduced a major transition; revealed a rough standardization expressed by fixed sizes of hand tools handles for the use of diverse mass markets consumers, with hardly any anthropometric fit and variability considerations at all.