טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentLanir-Shatsberg Tamar
SubjectAffordable Housing: Analyzing the Experience in Selected
Countries and Lessons for Israel
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Emeritus Naomi Carmon
Full Thesis text - in Hebrew Full thesis text - Hebrew Version


Abstract

The research focuses on the concept of affordable housing and on affordable housing policies to ensure decent housing for all citizens within their means, with enough funds left for household necessities.  

Public supports for affordable housing in Israel has been recently diminished, while the gap between the 'haves' and 'have nots' grew wider. The goal of this research was to examine housing policies and experience in providing affordable housing in several Western countries, in order to submit Israeli decision makers an updated evaluation of those policies and experiences that may assist them in shaping effective policies to ensure housing for low income households.

Four tiers to this work: The first clarifies and discusses key terms and issues, including: affordability, decent housing, eligibility, tenure patterns, exclusion and inclusion, mobility and mixed-income housing. The second is an extensive review of relevant literature, mainly from the US, Netherlands and the UK, which enabled mapping the main mechanisms for providing affordable housing and evaluating the programs and their implementation according to five criteria: ensuring housing for low-income groups, those poorest in resources; securing tenure stability; expanding social opportunities; assessing the cost to the public and the likelihood of implementing the program. The third tier investigates Israel’s policies related to housing for low-income households, including interviews with a dozen Israeli housing experts. The fourth is devoted to insights, conclusions and recommendations relevant to Israel, based on the former three parts of this research.

Among our conclusions and recommendations: (a) The central government involvement in affordable housing programs is imperative since only the government has the tools needed to implement such policies; (b) Public Housing is still needed both for those who will never be able to maintain their home and those who need temporary assistance; Israel that has a fewer public units compared to most Western countries should expand and update its stock of public housing; (c) Existing housing units  tend to be cheaper than new ones, and therefore, they are the main source of affordable housing; (e)Housing allowances for eligible residents should be updated in order to be in line with real costs . (e) Experiments with public-private partnerships for providing affordable housing are highly recommended.