|Subject||The Use of Controlled Grazing as a Principle Factor in the|
|Department||Department of Architecture and Town Planning||Supervisor||?|
At the beginning of 1970, in a section of the Carmel Hills called “Little Switzerland" , an area of 6000 dunams was fenced off as a reserve for the reintroduction of Roe deer ( Caoreolus -caoreolus. ),Persian Fallow deer( Dama dama mesootamice), Cretean wild goats (Capra aeoaorus creticus), Persian urial ( Ovis orientalis opions), an of which have become extinct in Israel. The basic idea was to house each species of ungulate in his own enclosure and give them the optimal conditions to reproduce so that the offspring could one day be released both into the 8000 dunams wild area on the Carmel and to the Mount Meiron Nature Reserve.
The cretean wild goat, have increased in numbers to the point where in 1984, a small herd was released into a 200 dunam wild - state enclosure located on a ridge to the north-cast of the Galim Vallev on a chalk out-crop where the following vegetaion is found:
Approximately 12% trees: 1/2 Pinus halepensis and the rest Ceratonia siliqua and Olea europea.
Approximately 60% bushes: 1/3 cistus species, 1/4 Sacropoterium spinosum and the rest Various species.
Field observations made by Len Aronson on the cretan wild goats in the Chai- Bar reserve have shown that they are very selective in their food habits. They prefer Cistus salvifolus, Quercus calliprinos+Phillyrea. Planttransects made on both sides of the wild goat enclosure have shown The same process in which certain species such as Cistus saIvifolus, Rubia tenifolia, Lonicera etrusca and Asparaous aphyllus are disappearing. Other species have become dominant such as Sacropoterium spinosum, Pistacia lentiscus and Calycotome villosa and a large number of geophytet have appeared principally Bellevaia flexuosa, Anemone coronaria,Ophrys species, Orchis species, Cyclamen persicum and Tulipa apenesis.
"Cafeteria" feeding experiment done by Dr. Amotz Dafni have shown that the wild goats select for Quercus calliprinos which isn’t found in large numbers in their enclosure. Quercus is found principally on limestone from the Muchraka Geological formation.
The other ungulates at the Chai-Bar reserve weren't as reproductionaly successful as the Cretean wild goats.
The conclusion that reached from my research was that the wild goats should be replaced into an enclosure on limestone from the proper forestry management should be used to bring the bush from of Quercus calliorinos into a tree form.