|M.Sc Thesis||Department of Architecture and Town Planning|
|Supervisor:||Prof. Emeritus Shefer Daniel|
Most of the development towns in Israel were established in the fifties far away from urban centers. Most of the residents were new immigrants from North African and middle eastern countries, who were assigned to these towns by government officials. The government’s population dispersal policy - managed, with the assistance of public work programs, to a large extent, to solve the immediate employment problems in the development towns, but did not succeed in decreasing the inter-regional gaps which existed between the center and the outlying areas. Most of the development towns suffered from out-migration and this problem was recognized as a major one, mainly from the sixties on, when the number of newcomers (“olim”) who came to Israel diminished.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate, on a micro level, the causes and reasons which bring the upper socio-economic class of the population to emigrate from or immigrate to the development towns. The development towns, which were chosen for this study, were: Kiryat Shmona, Hazor Ragehilit and Migdal Haemeq. The data was obtained with a questionnaire, through which information were collected about the causes and reasons of migration (if any) and questions about liking the town and being satisfied with the different level of social ‘services provided in the town. This was compared with the services provided in their City of origin or in the city of destination. The questionnaires were given to high level socio-economic individuals, who were defined in the present study as academic and high level workers. The research focused on four types of population: people who were born or grew up in the development towns; people working in the development towns but not residing there; new immigrants (over the past 5 years); and Emigrants from the development towns (over the past 5 years).
The main results of the research proved that it is impossible to disconnect the solutions, for assisting the development towns, from their regional setting. The development towns could prosper from integrating with their surrounding region. This means specializing as opportunity “exporters”. The study shows, that there, is a cross section of population, from the high socio-economic group, which is ready to tie its future with the development towns and with the regions surrounding them; this phenomenon accompany by a macro economic processes which create a “spill over effects” to the peripheral regions. This process entices skilled professional workers from the “centre” (and the “olim”) to migrate to these regions, where employment opportunities exist. Additionally, each town should design its own policy by considering its unique circumstances.