|M.Sc Thesis||Department of Architecture and Town Planning|
|Supervisor:||Mr. Milo E. Hoffman|
This paper deals mainly with the thermodynamic relation between urban morphology and climatic conditions registered at near-by meteorological station (or in site, before building the city) and temperature conditions in the canopy layer in open areas within the city in the streets and open to the street courtyards.
The temperature course of an area has more influence in the thermodynamic balance, prior to the built up of the area and solar radiation access, heat emission by radiation to the outer space through the atmosphere and wind conditions, are themselves mainly affected by the geometric relations: the space between the buildings and their height, Street orientation and additional Shaded areas (in this work under the buildings in the form of half-open ground colonnaded floor).
This thermodynamic relations are expressed by the CTTC Urban Climatic Model which enables temperature forecasting in the city. In its first stage the model was developed as an experimental analytical model (Sharlyn & Hoffman 1978-1980) based on measurements made in the Tel-Aviv area, and later as an analytical model (Swaid & Hoffman 1988).
This paper aim is to study the CTTC model to complete not considered until now parts of the model, and to develop a Climatic Urban Design Lexicon for Israeli climatic zones. Forecasting capabilities of the CTTC model were investigated. In this Stage, climatic measurements were carried out in two different areas in Tel-Aviv, characterized by different morphology.
As a result of the experimental research, it was concluded that wind velocity at roof level influences on the roof top surfaces heat transfer coefficient, HMROOF, (that previously has been considered constant in the CTTC Model), must be taken into consideration. Another physical parameter that was defined in this paper is the contribution of motor cars heat production. It was found that a ratio of 500 to 600 motor cars per hour, gives an additional 2 K to the measured temperature in the street.
In the second stage of this research the Urban Design Lexicon, developed by Michael Bar-El for “canyon shaped streets (buildings flanking continuously both sides of the Street) in Tel-Aviv, was widen. The lexicon is presented here as a design tool, developed for the four main climatic zones in Israel for summer season.