טכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל
הטכניון מכון טכנולוגי לישראל - בית הספר ללימודי מוסמכים  
M.Sc Thesis
M.Sc StudentPrengler Ariela
SubjectPlanning and Building Process )Provision( Law 1990-
Achievements and Results
DepartmentDepartment of Architecture and Town Planning
Supervisor Professor Emeritus Rachelle Alterman


Abstract

The termination of public construction line in the 1980s on the one hand and the mass immigration into Israel at the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s on the other hand, created the context which resulted in a comprehensive housing policy aimed at expediting residential construction in Israel. One of the tools proposed to implement this policy were the Planning and Building Procedures (Provisional Law) 1990. The law aims to accelerate the authorization process of statutory plans so as to generate a surplus of building plans and thereby facilitate the production of housing for new immigrates, young couples, and homeless. This study takes a first step towards investigating the achievements and the results of the law. It is based on an opinion survey of a variety of professionals and elected officials involved in the implementation of the law.


The empirical analysis focused on number of operative objectives which include:

1. Do the respondents consider the provisional law successful in shortening the desired procedures to the extent it is considered successful, which operative guidelines of the law most contributed to shortening process?

2. Did plans authorized by the provisional law actually enlarge the housing supply? was this housing appropriate for new immigrants, young couples, and homeless?

3. According to the respondents, were rights of the public limited or extended as a result of the new law? Are the rights greater in the provisional law or in the Planning and Building law of 1965?

4. Did disbanding the hierarchy of the planning institutions as delineated the provisional law result in significant changes in the balance of powers between coalition and opposition faction in local government?

5. Were there any changes in the relations between planners and planning authorities regarding planning principles? If so, what was the nature of these changes?


Following are the principal findings which emerged from the survey results

*The majority of respondents claim that the law resulted in considerably shortening the process of plan authorization. The shorter time allotted for each phase of the authorization process is seen to greatly further the aim of accelerating the overall process.

* The wide variety of residential plans submitted by means of the provisional law included plans which only indirectly met the goals of generating affordable and accessible housing. This fact, is seen to detract from the success of the law.

The survey results indicate that it is not possible to arrive at an unequivocal conclusion regarding its impact on the relation between and local government. The respondents tend to ascertain that, to a certain extent, cooperation between local authorities and national government, resulted in authorization of plans which served the developers’ interests over those of the local authority.

* The respondents agree that there was a clear change in the balance of powers within the local authorities, to the detriment of the local opposition.

* The respondents tend to think that the provisional law did not change the extent to which the environment impact of plans was taken into account. They did reply that the law resulted in significant depletion of land reserves.

* The respondents tend to think that the new law did not result in significant changes in the extent of public participation. However, there were a number changes which reduced the extent of public participation.


At the same time, the findings cannot be entirely conclusive regarding every geographical region, time period, or type of participant in the planning and building process. Further research should be tailored to these and other aspects policy under investigation. These limitations point to the need for further research based on broader and more comprehensive samples which would employ content analysis of responses to open-ended questions. From the results of such studies, it would be possible to more accurately assess the success of the physical planning policy in Israel.