|M.Sc Student||Szafran Ilana|
|Subject||Urbanization in Moshavim of the Jerusalem Region|
|Department||Department of Architecture and Town Planning||Supervisor||Dr. Rachel Wilkansky|
This study examines changes in five moshavim (villages) near the city of Jerusalem: Ora; Aminadav; Even Sapir; Beit Zait and Giva’t Yearim. Four characteristics of urbanization have been identified in the literature and checked in these five moshavim: The changes in occupation type, the changes in land use, the proportions of non-agricultural businesses and the migration of families from the city to the moshavim.
The findings show that the Moshavim studied do experience such changes towards urbanization:
1. 9 5% of the farm owners work in non-agricultural occupations. 49% of them do not have any agricultural activities on their farms, while 46% have mixed occupations, i.e. agriculture and some other kind of work.
2. Most of the fruit orchards, which were the main agricultural land use (besides hen-houses, that are located near the house), are not tilled by the residents of the moshav. Parts of these orchards were uprooted and the remainder are contracted out to tenant companies.
3. Non-agricultural businesses are found only in 4 out of the 5 moshavim. The findings show that the number of businesses increases as the moshav is closer to Jerusalem. The character of the businesses is found to be different among the moshavim: some tend to have craft and product oriented businesses, others are more oriented toward tourism.
4. No distinct pattern emerges in the relationship between the number of families who moved to the moshavim and the distance from Jerusalem.
It was found in the study that changes toward urbanization are mostly linear, and include two stages. The first stage includes changes in the land uses and changes from agricultural occupation to other occupations. The second stage includes the introduction of new businesses and an increase in migration of families from the city.
According to the public opinion survey of the study, changes in the character of the moshavim, especially due to the entry of new businesses and the migration of new residents, caused environmental and social problems.
The study ends by recommending intervention in the process, trying not to stop
it, but to channel it into a desirable development pattern. The
recommendations of this study include:
1. Planning with a broad perspective approach beyond local interests.
2. Development policies specifically adapted to each moshav.
3. Direct contracts between the state and farming companies who which to till the agricultural land.
4. Creation of new types of local non-agricultural occupations, suitable to each moshav.